Table 5.

HRs and 95% CIs for invasive breast cancer associated with subsets of WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations met at baseline after sequentially eliminating the recommendation least associated with a reduction in breast cancer risk

Recs. included:Physical activity, meat, body fatness, plant foods, alcohol (removed energy density)Meat, body fatness, plant foods, alcohol (removed physical activity)Body fatness, plant foods, alcohol (removed meat)Plant foods, alcohol (removed body fatness)
Recs. metNo. of casesHR (95% CI)aNo. of casesHR (95% CI)aNo. of casesHR (95% CI)aNo. of casesHR (95% CI)a
None311.00321.00821.001601.00
11760.65 (0.44–0.95)1940.71 (0.49–1.03)5040.69 (0.54–0.87)6450.63 (0.53–0.76)
23700.58 (0.40–0.84)4240.66 (0.46–0.95)2830.57 (0.44–0.73)940.52 (0.40–0.67)
32450.52 (0.35–0.75)2250.53 (0.36–0.77)300.38 (0.25–0.58)
4680.43 (0.28–0.66)240.35 (0.21–0.59)
590.31 (0.15–0.65)
Per rec.0.86 (0.80–0.92)0.82 (0.76–0.89)0.77 (0.70–0.85)0.70 (0.62–0.80)
Ptrendb<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001
  • aAdjusted for age (as the timeline in the Cox model), education, race, mammography, family history of breast cancer, age at menarche, age at first birth, age at menopause, and years of estrogen plus progestin hormone therapy use using categories in Table 2 and daily energy intake (kcal). Models included 30,797 observations and 899 incident breast cancers.

  • bHRs, 95% CIs, and P values were calculated using a two-sided test for linear trend modeling categories as a continuous variable.