Table 3.

HRs and 95% CIs for invasive breast cancer associated with meeting (vs. not meeting) each WCRF/AICR recommendation

Age-adjustedCovariate-adjustedaFully adjustedb
RecommendationHR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)
Body fatness0.89 (0.78–1.02)0.87 (0.76–1.00)0.85 (0.74–0.98)
Physical activity0.98 (0.82–1.16)0.95 (0.80–1.13)0.97 (0.81–1.16)
Energy density1.00 (0.86–1.17)0.98 (0.84–1.15)1.04 (0.88–1.22)
Plant foods0.81 (0.67–0.99)0.79 (0.64–0.97)0.82 (0.66–1.02)
Red meat0.94 (0.81–1.09)0.90 (0.77–1.06)0.94 (0.80–1.11)
Alcohol0.62 (0.52–0.73)0.63 (0.54–0.75)0.63 (0.53–0.74)

NOTE: Age is used as the timeline in the Cox proportional hazards models. All models included 30,797 women and 899 incident breast cancers.

  • aAdjusted for age (as the timeline in the Cox model), education, race, mammography, family history of breast cancer, age at menarche, age at first birth, age at menopause, and years of estrogen plus progestin hormone therapy use using categories in Table 2 and daily energy intake (kcal).

  • bAdjusted for the factors in the covariate-adjusted model as well as for whether respondents met each of the other recommendations.