Table 1.

A summary of studies on the association between pickled vegetables/foods and risk of gastric cancer

No.First author; publication year [literaturea]Study place (period)Case no./control no. or cohort sizeStudied exposure; Ref. Cat.bStudy design and name
Case–control studies
1Acheson, ED; 1964 [E] (14)UK: Radcliffe, Middlesex, Balham (NR)100/200Pic. food; NH-B CCS
2Crane, PS; 1970 [E] (15)Korea, rural area (1962–1968)170/170Pic. veg.; NH-B CCS
3Haenszel, W; 1972 [E] (16)US: Hawaii (1963–1969)220/440Several Pic. veg.; NH-B CCS
4Haenszel, W; 1976 [E] (17)Japan: Miyagi (1962–1965)276/545Pic. veg.; LH-B CCS
5Kono, S; 1988 [E] (18)Japan: Karatsu (1979–1982)139/2,574Pic. green veg. and Pic. radish; LH-B CCS
6You, WC; 1988 [E] (19)China: Linqu (1984–1986)566/1,132Salted veg.; LCCS: H-B cases, P-B controls
7Kato, I; 1990 [E] (20)Japan: Aichi (1985–1989)427/3,014Pic. veg.; LH-B CCS
8Lee, HH; 1990 [E] (21)Taiwan: Taipei (NR)210/810Pic. veg.; LH-B CCS
9Hoshiyama, Y; 1992 [E] (22)Japan: Saitama (1984–1990)294/294Pic. veg.; LCCS: H-B cases, P-B controls
10Ji, BT; 1992 [C] (23)China: Shanghai (1988–1989)1,197/1,451Pic. food; NP-B CCS
11Lee, JK; 1995 [E] (24)Korea: Seoul (1990–1991)213/213Pic. veg.; LH-B CCS
12Shi, Y; 1997 [E] (25)China: Yangzhong (1987–1990)110/125Pic. veg.; LH-B CCS
13Watabe, K; 1998 [E] (26)Japan: Hokkaido (1996–1997)242/484Pic. veg.; LP-B CCS
14Ye, WM; 1998 [E] (27)China: Changle and Fuqing (1994–1995)272/544Salted veg.; LP-B CCS
15Chen, JS; 1999 [C] (28)China: Changle (1995)100/200Pic. food; LCCS: H-B cases, P-B controls
16Wang, MR; 1999 [C] (29)China: Yangzhong (1994–1995)141/141cPic. veg.; LCCS: H-B cases, P-B controls
17Huang, XE; 2000 [E] (30)Japan: Aichi (1988–1995)1,111/26,996Pic. veg.; LCCS: H-B cases, P-B controls
18Cui, L; 2001 [C] (31)China: Jiangyan (1999–2000)210/210Pic. food; LCCS: H-B cases, P-B controls
19Takezaki, T; 2001 [E] (32)China: Pizhou (1995–2000)187/333Pic. veg.; LH-B CCS
20Zheng, ZL; 2001 [C] (33)China: Fuzhou (2000)178/97 cPic. food; LH-B CCS
21Chen, JS; 2002 [C] (34)China: Changle (1999)310/310Pic. veg.; NCCS: H-B cases, P-B controls
22Hamada, GS; 2002 [E] (35)Brazil: Sao Paulo (1991–1994)96/192Pic. veg.; LH-B CCS
23Kim, HJ; 2002 [E] (36)Korea: Hanyang and Hallim (1997–1998)136/136Salted veg.; LH-B CCS
24Sriamporn, S; 2002 [E] (37)Thailand: Khon Kaen Province (1996–1997)106/223Pic. veg.; LH-B CCS
25Takezaki, T; 2002 [E] (38)China: Huaian (1999–2000)101/196Pic. veg.; LCCS: H-B cases, P-B controls
26Bao, PP; 2003 [C] (39)China: Shanghai (1999)311/1,579Pic. veg. Pic. food; LP-B CCS
27Cai, L; 2003 [E] (40)China: Fuzhou (2000–2001)381/222 cPic. veg.; LH-B CCS
28Chen, K; 2003 [C] (41)China: Zhoushan (2001)138/133Pic. food; LCCS: H-B cases, P-B controls
29Fei, SJ; 2003 [C] (42)China: Shanghai (2001–2003)189/567Pic. food; LH-B CCS
30Ito, LS; 2003 [E] (43)Japan: Aichi (1988–1998)508/36,490Pic. veg.; LH-B CCS
31Lee, SA; 2003 [E] (44)Korea: Seoul (1999)69/199Pic. veg.; LH-B CCS
32Li, YM; 2003 [C] (45)China: Wuwei (2001–2002)494/988Pic. veg.; LCCS: H-B cases, P-B controls
33Zhou, JN; 2003 [C] (46)China: Huai'an (1997–2000)144/227Pic. veg.; LCCS: H-B cases, P-B controls
34Zhou, XJ; 2003 [C] (47)China: Nanchang (1999–2000)250/250Pic. food; LH-B CCS
35Li, L; 2004 [C] (48)China: Chengde (2002–2003)118/118Pic. veg.; LCCS: H-B cases, P-B controls
36Lissowska, J; 2004 [E] (49)Poland: Warsaw (1994–1996)274/463Pic. and salted veg.; LCCS: H-B cases, P-B controls
37Machida-Montani, A; 2004 [E] (50)Japan: Nagano (1998–2002)122/235Pic. veg.; LH-B CCS
38Li, H; 2005 [E] (51)China: Jinan (1998–2000)102/62Pic. veg.; NH-B CCS
39Nan, HM; 2005 [E] (52)Korea: Chungbuk and Eulji (1997–2003)421/632Pic. veg.; LH-B CCS
40Strumylaitė, L; 2006 [E] (53)Lithuania (2002–2004)379/1,137Pic. veg.; NH-B CCS
41Zhang, J; 2006 [C] (54)China: Nanjing (2003–2004)121/121Pic. food; LH-B CCS
42Xiao, JR; 2007 [C] (55)China: Fuzhou (2002–2004)97/77Pic. food; LH-B CCS
43Xu, MG; 2008 [C] (56)China: Changshu (2005–2006)202/202Pic. veg.; LCCS: H-B cases, P-B controls
44Chi, Y; 2009 [C] (57)China: Chuzhou (2005–2006)112/112Pic. food; LP-B CCS
45Li, L; 2009 [C] (58)China: Xuzhou (2006–2007)200/200Pic. food; LH-B CCS
46Sumathi, B; 2009 [E] (59)India: Chennai (2002–2006)89/89Salted pickles; LH-B CCS
47Tang, XF; 2009 [C] (60)China: Linxian and Lanzhou (2007–2008)100/105Pic. veg.; LCCS: H-B cases, P-B controls
48Zhang, YW; 2009 [E] (61)Korea: Cheongju (2000–2005)471/471Pic. veg.; LH-B CCS
49Lazarevic, K; 2010 [E] (62)Serbia: Nis (2005–2006)102/204Pic. veg.; LH-B CCS
50Zhao, DL; 2011 [C] (63)China: Cixian, Shexian, Linxian, Feicheng and Zhuanghe (2008-NR) d250/750Pic. food; LP-B CCS
Prospective studies
51Nomura, A; 1990 [E] (64)US: Hawaiian island of Oahu (1965–1986)150/7,838Pickles; LP-B cohort
52Inoue, M; 1996 [E] (65)Japan: Aichi (1985–1995)69/5,373Pic. veg.; LH-B cohort
53Xu, Z; 1996 [E] (66)China: Anshan (1989–1993)293/959Pic. veg.; NNested CCS
54Botterweck, AA; 1998 [E] (67)Netherlands: country wide (1986–1992)265/2,953Pic. veg.; NP-B cohort; the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer
55Galanis, DJ; 1998 [E] (68)US: Hawaii (1975–1994)108/11,907Pic. veg.; NP-B cohort
56Ngoan, LT; 2002 [E] (69)Japan: Fukuoka (1986–1999)62/13,250Pic. food; LP-B cohort
57Khan, MMH; 2004 [E] (70)Japan: Hokkaido (1984–2002)36/3,158Pic. veg.; LP-B cohort
58Tsugane, S; 2004 [E] (71)Japan: Akita, Iwate, Nagano, and Okinawa (1990–2001)486/39,065Pic. veg.; LP-B cohort; the Japan Public Health Center-based (JPHC) Study
59Tokui, N; 2005 [E] (72)Japan: 52 cities, towns and villages (1988–1999)771/110,792Pickles; LP-B cohort; the Japan Collaborative Cohort study (JACC) Study
60Tran, GD; 2005 [E] (73)China: Linxian (1986–2001)1,452/29,584 cPic. veg.; NP-B cohort; the Linxian General Population Trial

Abbreviations: CCS, case–control study; H-B, hospital-based; NR, not reported; Pic., pickled; P-B, population-based; Ref. Cat., reference category; veg., vegetable.

  • aEnglish [E] or Chinese [C].

  • bThe lowest reported category of pickled vegetable/food use, which included nonusers only (N) or nonusers plus those with some occasional use (L).

  • cResults were reported by subsite (cardia and noncardia).

  • dResults were reported only for cardia.