Table 2.

RARβ2 and APC methylation among different investigated groups

Investigated markersControl (n = 49)Benign (n = 61)Malignant (n = 210)
TotalBilharzial status of benign groupTotalBilharzial status of malignant group
N-Bilh.(n = 33)Bilh.(n = 28)N-Bilh.(n = 82)Bilh.(n = 128)
Methylated urinary0 (0%)10 (16.4%)5 (15.2%)5 (17.9%)a132 (62.8%)38 (46.3%)94 (73.4%)
RARβ2 (n = 142)11 (8.6%)
Homoplasmic methylation (n = 11)11 (5.2%)38 (46.3%)83 (64.8%)
Heteroplasmic methylation (n = 131)10 (16.4%)5 (15.2%)5 (17.9%)121 (57.6%)
Methylated urinary APC promoter (n = 128)b0 (0%)3 (5%)0 (0%)3 (10.7%)b125 (59.5%)39 (47.6%)86 (67.2%)
Homoplasmic methylation (n = 3)3 (1.4%)3 (2.3%)
Heteroplasmic methylation (n = 125)3 (5%)3 (10.7%)122 (58.1%)39 (47.6%)83 (64.8%)
Positive urine cytology (n = 91)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)91 (43.3%)20 (24.4%)71 (55.5%)

NOTE: Nonbilharzial (49; control, 33 benign, and 82 malignant cases), bilharzial [28 benign (bilharzial dysplasia and bilharzial cystitis) and 128 malignant cases].

Statistical significance was detected between the 3 studied groups (control, benign, and malignant) regarding RARβ2, APC, and cytology 2 = 64, 47.2, and 62.8, at P < 0.0001, respectively).

Significant between bilharizial benign group (bilharzial dysplasia and bilharzial cystitis) versus bilharizial malignant group: at

  • aχ2 = 19.96, P ≤ 0.0001, and at

  • bχ2 = 11.31, P = 0.003. No statistical difference between bilharzial (bilharzial dysplasia, and bilharzial cystitis) and nonbilharzial benign groups and no statistical difference between bilharzial and nonbilharzial malignant groups.