Table 2.

Demographic characteristics and risk factors for pancreatic cancer among selected pancreatic cases and matched controls

VariablesCases, n = 104Controls, n = 262
Gender,* n (%)
    Female53 (51.0)132 (50.4)
    Male51 (49.0)130 (49.6)
Race,* n (%)
    Black20 (19.2)35 (13.4)
    White83 (79.8)226 (86.2)
    Other1 (1)1 (0.4)
Age at MHC,* y
    Mean (SD)49.5 (9.2)50.3 (8.8)
Year of MHC,* n (%)
    1964-196537 (35.6)101 (38.5)
    1966-196747 (45.2)106 (40.5)
    1968-196920 (19.2)55 (21.0)
Site of MHC,* n (%)
    Oakland54 (51.9)130 (49.6)
    San Francisco50 (48.1)132 (50.4)
Education, n (%)
    Less than high school16 (15.4)59 (22.5)P = 0.01
    High/business school34 (32.7)112 (42.7)
    College and beyond54 (51.9)91 (34.7)
Smoking, n (%)
    Never26 (25.0)108 (41.2)P = 0.03
    Former19 (18.3)40 (15.3)
    <1 pack/d29 (27.9)59 (22.5)
    ≥1 pack/d30 (28.8)54 (20.6)
    No amount stated0 (0)1 (0.4)
Alcohol, n (%)
    Never19 (18.3)60 (22.9)P = 0.04
    Former3 (2.9)11 (4.2)
    <2 drinks/d73 (70.2)137 (52.3)
    ≥2 drinks/d6 (5.8)33 (12.6)
    No amount stated3 (2.9)21 (8.0)
BMI, n (%)
    <2557 (54.8)139 (53.1)P = 0.9
    ≥25 and <3036 (34.6)96 (36.6)
    ≥3011 (10.6)27 (10.3)
Diabetes mellitus, n (%)
    Never diagnosed101 (97.1)253 (96.6)P = 0.9
    Ever diagnosed3 (2.9)9 (3.4)
H. pylori, n (%)
    HP negative53 (51.0)107 (40.8)P = 0.08
    HP positive51 (49.0)155 (59.2)
CagA protein, n (%)
    CagA negative67 (64.4)151 (57.6)P = 0.7
    CagA positive33 (31.7)83 (31.7)
    Indeterminate4 (3.9)28 (10.7)
  • NOTE: P values for comparisons between cases and controls were obtained using χ2 and Fisher exact tests for general association, testing the difference of distribution between cases and controls.

  • * Matching variable.