Table 2.

Geometric mean (95% CI) children's urine total NNAL, total cotinine, total nicotine, and total nicotine + total cotinine levels by demographic and smoking characteristics

Total NNAL, pmol/mLTotal cotinine, ng/mLTotal nicotine, ng/mLTotal nicotine + total cotinine, nmol/mL
All children0.08 (0.06–0.10)11.88 (8.42–16.77)6.90 (4.57–10.43)0.13 (0.09–0.18)
RaceP < 0.01P < 0.01P < 0.01P < 0.01
 African American0.11 (0.08–0.17)20.01 (13.82–28.95)12.01 (7.59–18.99)0.21 (0.15–0.31)
 White0.03 (0.02–0.06)4.06 (1.51–10.89)1.70 (0.47–6.16)0.04 (0.02–0.11)
 Others0.07 (0.03–0.12)8.78 (4.37–17.64)6.21 (3.18–12.16)0.10 (0.04–0.19)
IncomeNot significantP < 0.05P < 0.01P < 0.01
 <$1,800/mo0.09 (0.07–0.13)45.36 (10.49–22.48)8.87 (5.69–13.84)0.16 (0.11–0.24)
 ≥$1,800/mo0.04 (0.02–0.09)5.28 (2.58–10.82)3.12 (1.17–8.31)0.06 (0.03–0.12)
Education, yNot significantNot significantNot significantNot significant
 <120.11 (0.07–0.18)17.44 (10.45–30.27)10.74 (5.52–20.91)0.19 (0.11–0.32)
 ≥120.07 (0.05–0.10)10.34 (6.74–15.87)5.88 (3.52–9.87)0.11 (0.07–0.17)
Employment statusP < 0.05P < 0.05P < 0.05P < 0.05
 Not employed0.10 (0.07–0.14)15.90 (11.10–22.77)9.61 (6.41–13.39)0.17 (0.12–0.24)
 Full or part time0.05 (0.03–0.09)6.56 (3.14–13.69)3.52 (1.37–8.99)0.07 (0.03–0.15)
Housing typeNot significantNot significantNot significantNot significant
 Multiunit dwelling0.09 (0.06–0.13)11.64 (7.37–18.40)7.51 (4.23–13.33)0.13 (0.08–0.21)
 Single family house0.07 (0.04–0.11)12.24 (7.04–21.28)6.09 (3.32–11.20)0.12 (0.07–0.21)
Child genderNot significantNot significantNot significantNot significant
 Female0.07 (0.04–0.11)12.46 (7.99–19.43)8.45 (5.34–13.37)0.14 (0.09–0.21)
 Male0.09 (0.06–0.13)11.31 (6.53–19.60)5.61 (2.76–11.38)0.12 (0.07–0.20)
Time to first cigarette, minP < 0.01P < 0.01P < 0.001P < 0.001
 0–300.11 (0.09–0.15)18.21 (13.36–24.82)11.99 (8.03–17.92)0.20 (0.15–0.27)
 31+0.04 (0.02–0.07)5.45 (2.61–11.43)2.52 (1.12–5.69)0.05 (0.03–0.11)
Child exposed in homeP < 0.001P < 0.001P < 0.001P < 0.001
 Yes0.11 (0.09–0.15)19.53 (14.78–25.81)10.99 (7.46–16.22)0.20 (0.16–0.27)
 No0.03 (0.01–0.06)3.28 (1.44–7.47)2.06 (0.78–5.44)0.04 (0.02–0.09)
Child exposed outside homeNot significantNot significantNot significantNot significant
 Yes0.08 (0.050.13)10.42 (5.8318.63)7.14 (3.8413.28)0.11 (0.060.20)
 No0.07 (0.050.11)13.43 (8.8120.48)6.49 (3.6111.68)0.14 (0.090.21)
Home smoking restrictionsP < 0.001P < 0.001P < 0.001P < 0.001
 Complete restrictions0.02 (0.00850.040)2.08 (0.865.03)1.70 (0.575.11)0.03 (0.010.07)
 Some/no restrictions0.11 (0.0870.15)19.16 (14.5425.24)10.13 (6.8115.07)0.20 (0.150.26)
Car smoking restrictionsNot significantNot significantNot significantNot significant
 Complete restrictions0.07 (0.020.23)13.26 (4.0543.37)8.05 (1.8435.27)0.15 (0.050.47)
 Some/no restrictions0.05 (0.030.08)5.78 (2.7312.21)3.20 (1.457.02)0.06 (0.030.12)