Table 1.

Characteristics of 29,133 men in the ATBC Study at randomization and associations with tuberculosis

All participants, n (%)Prevalent tuberculosis, n (%)Incident tuberculosis, n (%)HR (95% CI)
Total29,133 (100)88 (100)185 (100)
Age at randomization, y
 50–536,449 (22.1)16 (18.2)27 (14.6)1.0
 53–577,863 (27.0)21 (23.9)42 (22.7)1.24 (0.77–2.02)
 57–616,936 (23.8)18 (20.5)41 (22.2)1.37 (0.84–2.23)
 61–697,885 (27.1)33 (37.5)75 (40.5)2.24 (1.44–3.48)
Ptrend = 0.0001
Cigarettes per day
 5–145,934 (20.4)24 (27.3)22 (11.9)1.0
 15–194,625 (15.9)14 (15.9)31 (16.8)1.62 (0.93–2.81)
 20–249,255 (31.8)22 (25.0)71 (38.4)1.98 (1.23–3.20)
 25+9,319 (32.0)28 (31.8)61 (33.0)1.62 (0.99–2.64)
Ptrend = 0.07
Pack-years smoked
 0–247,376 (25.3)25 (28.4)25 (13.5)1.0
 25–357,329 (25.1)16 (18.2)44 (23.8)1.69 (1.03–2.78)
 36–467,260 (24.9)21 (23.9)59 (31.9)2.24 (1.40–3.58)
 47+7,177 (24.6)26 (29.6)57 (30.8)2.27 (1.41–3.64)
Ptrend = 0.0004
α-Tocopherol arm
 No14,569 (50.0)45 (51.1)86 (46.5)1.0
 Yes14,564 (50.0)43 (48.9)99 (53.5)1.10 (0.82–1.47)
β-Carotene arm
 No14,573 (50.0)49 (55.7)91 (49.2)1.0
 Yes14,560 (50.0)39 (44.3)94 (50.8)1.08 (0.81–1.45)
Baseline vitamin C intake, mg/d
 <92.513,565 (50.0)36 (47.4)107 (63.7)1.0
 92.5+13,546 (50.0)40 (52.6)61 (36.3)0.57 (0.41–0.78)
 Missing2,0221217
History of asthma
 No28,232 (96.9)82 (93.2)167 (90.3)1.0
 Yes901 (3.1)6 (6.8)18 (9.7)3.97 (2.43–6.48)
History of emphysema
 No27,234 (93.5)73 (83.0)145 (78.4)1.0
 Yes1,899 (6.5)15 (17.1)40 (21.6)3.75 (2.62–5.36)
History of chronic bronchitis
 No26,888 (92.3)71 (80.7)148 (85.4)1.0
 Yes2,245 (7.7)17 (19.3)27 (14.6)2.27 (1.51–3.42)