Table 4.

Analysis of associations with an oral HPV infection

Oral HPV InfectionUnivariate ORMultivariatea OR
N (%)(95% CI)(95% CI)
Sociodemographic characteristics
Country
 Brazil475 (2.1)0.5 (0.3–1.2)0.5 (0.2–1.1)
 Mexico591 (5.9)1.7 (0.98–2.9)1.3 (0.8–2.3)
 United States614 (3.4)1.01.0
Age, y
 17–24b505 (3.2)1.01.0
 25–34509 (3.6)1.1 (0.6–2.2)0.9 (0.4–1.9)
 35–44415 (4.8)1.6 (0.8–3.0)1.3 (0.6–2.6)
 45–54169 (4.7)1.5 (0.7–3.6)1.2 (0.5–3.0)
 55+82 (6.1)2.0 (0.7–5.6)1.7 (0.6–5.0)
Ptrend0.0960.218
Marital statusc
 Single743 (3.2)1.4 (0.7–2.6)
 Married789 (4.3)1.0
 Divorced144 (6.3)2.5 (1.1–5.9)
Tobacco
Tobacco use
 Never951 (2.7)1.01.0
 Former317 (4.7)1.8 (0.9–3.4)1.7 (0.9–3.2)
 Current370 (7.0)2.7 (1.5–4.7)2.5 (1.4–4.4)
Ptrend<0.0010.001
Number of cigarettes per day in the last 6 months (among current smokers)
 0.5–9211 (8.1)1.0
 10+8 (5.1)0.6 (0.3–1.5)
Age at initiation of smoking, y
 9–14166 (5.4)1.0
 15–17291 (5.5)1.0 (0.4–2.4)
 18+224 (7.1)1.3 (0.6–3.1)
Years of smokingd
 Zero958 (2.7)1.0
 1–<10332 (6.0)2.3 (1.3–4.2)
 10+343 (6.1)2.3 (1.3–4.2)
Sexual behavior
Sexual behavior
 MSW1,464 (4.2)1.0
 MSM55 (0)0
 MSMW75 (5.3)1.3 (0.5–3.6)
Age at sexual debut, y
 Virgin72 (1.4)0.2 (0.03–1.9)
 9–14274 (5.5)1.0
 15–17635 (3.3)0.6 (0.3–1.2)
 18+510 (4.5)0.8 (0.4–1.6)
Lifetime number of female sexual partners
 0–1240 (2.1)1.0
 2–9674 (3.7)1.8 (0.7–4.8)
 10+650 (4.8)2.4 (0.9–6.1)
Performed oral sex
 Never132 (3.8)1.0
 Ever1,303 (4.1)1.1 (0.4–2.8)
Recently performed oral sexe
 No471 (4.2)1.0
 Yes1,136 (4.0)1.0 (0.5–1.8)
Number of times performed oral sex in the past 6 months
 0–1545 (4.0)1.0
 2–9431 (3.9)1.0 (0.5–1.9)
 10+24 (4.2)1.0 (0.6–1.9)
Insertive anal sex
 Never662 (4.1)1.0
 Ever839 (4.1)1.0 (0.6–1.7)
Receptive anal sex
 Never1,358 (4.1)1.0
 Ever135 (3.0)0.7 (0.3–2.0)

Abbreviations: MSW, men who have sex with women; MSM, men who have sex with men; and MSMW, men who have sex with men and women.

  • aIn the multivariate model, current tobacco use independently increased the odds of oral HPV infection; the borderline significant trend of increasing oral HPV infection noted with increasing age was no longer present; these associations were adjusted for country.

  • bCategory contains one 17 year old.

  • cIn the marital status variable, the “married” category includes cohabitating and living together and “divorced” includes separated and widowed.

  • dTobacco use and years of smoking were highly collinear and yielded the same estimates when controlling for country and age, as in the multivariate model. Tobacco use was a slightly more robust factor, and therefore was retained in the final model, although similar estimates were present when we looked at years of tobacco use.

  • eFor variables indicating recent sexual activity, recent was defined as activity occurring over the past 6 months.