Table 2.

ORs and 95% CIs of HPV16 or HPV18 seropositivity by selected socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics (IARC HPV Prevalence Surveys)

Characteristicsn*HPV16-seropositiveHPV18-seropositive
(%)OR (95% CI)%OR (95% CI)
Overall7,07411.39.1
Study area
    Spain9080.83.1
    Argentina90215.77.9
    Lampang, Thailand1,01815.112.2
    Songkla, Thailand7042.72.7
    Korea8605.99.0
    Hanoi, Vietnam9570.60.2
    Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam80320.911.6
    Nigeria92227.124.8
Age (y)
    <258819.718.11
    25–341,31411.91.3 (0.9–1.7)9.41.1 (0.8–1.5)
    35–441,41912.31.5 (1.2–2.1)8.91.2 (0.8–1.6)
    45–541,37012.41.4 (1.1–1.9)10.01.2 (0.9–1.6)
    ≥552,09010.31.2 (0.9–1.6)8.91.1 (0.8–1.5)
    Test for trend0.3; P = 0.560.3; P = 0.61
Education level
    None1,33514.3112.11
    Primary3,02810.10.8 (0.7–1.1)9.01.1 (0.8–1.4)
    Secondary2,70911.00.8 (0.6–1.1)7.80.9 (0.6–1.2)
    Test for trend4.37; P = 0.041.73; P = 0.19
Smoking status
    Never5,92111.219.11
    Ever1,15011.91.2 (1.0–1.6)9.01.3 (1.0–1.6)
Marital status
    Married5,52610.918.91
    Widowed81111.00.9 (0.7–1.2)9.91.0 (0.7–1.3)
    Separated/divorced32617.81.5 (1.1–2.0)12.31.3 (0.9–1.9)
    Single40911.51.6 (1.1–2.4)7.81.0 (0.7–1.6)
Lifetime number of sexual partners
    15,5889.617.91
    297615.11.2 (1.0–1.5)13.01.2 (0.9–1.5)
    ≥349222.81.9 (1.5–2.4)15.01.4 (1.0–1.8)
    Test for trend22.0; P < 0.0015.45; P = 0.02
Husband's extramarital sexual relationships
    No2,7498.616.81
    Yes/unknown/uncertain4,29813.11.1 (0.9–1.3)10.61.1 (0.9–1.3)
Age at first sexual intercourse (y)
    ≥222,36510.617.91
    19–212,28010.70.9 (0.8–1.1)9.51.2 (1.0–1.6)
    <192,42712.41.0 (0.8–1.2)9.81.2 (1.0–1.6)
    Test for trend0.0; P = 0.993.32; P = 0.07
Years since first sexual intercourse
    <152,32011.418.81
    15–302,34411.80.9 (0.6–1.2)8.71.2 (0.8–1.7)
    >302,40810.60.8 (0.5–1.3)9.82.0 (1.2–3.2)
    Test for trend0.56; P = 0.467.21; P = 0.007
HPV18 seropositivity
    Negative6,4319.01
    Positive64334.13.1 (2.6–3.8)

NOTE: ORs were adjusted for age, study area and lifetime number of sexual partners.

  • *Some figures do not add up to the total due to missing data.

  • The result of the heterogeneity test, based on a direct comparison between HPV16- versus HPV18-seropositive women, excluding women positive for both seromarkers, was χ21 = 4.46 (P = 0.03).