Table 4.

Age-adjusted and multivariable-adjusted HRs for pancreatic cancer according to passive smoking exposure in never-smoking women, Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer (1986-2002)

All pancreatic cancer cases
Passive smokingPerson-years*No. of cases*Age-adjustedMultivariable adjusted
HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)
Spouse smoking status
    Never2,625201.001.00
    Former smoker8,055460.72 (0.41-1.26)0.67 (0.38-1.17)
    Current smoker6,198420.87 (0.49-1.53)0.78 (0.44-1.39)
Parental smoking
    No parents smoked2,815201.001.00
    One or both parents smoked15,645970.91 (0.55-1.50)0.90 (0.54-1.50)
Passive smoking exposure at work (past or present)
    Never3,943281.001.00
    Occasionally exposed4,611341.10 (0.64-1.86)1.08 (0.64-1.84)
    Regularly or always exposed5,600250.64 (0.36-1.12)0.61 (0.34-1.07)
Duration current passive smoking exposure (h/d; occupational and private)
    No exposure5,463341.001.00
    >0 to <34,969351.14 (0.70-1.87)1.14 (0.70-1.88)
    ≥34,698321.17 (0.70-1.95)1.07 (0.64-1.80)
    P for trend0.640.93
    Continuous (increment of 1 h/d)1.02 (0.98-1.07)1.01 (0.97-1.06)
  • *Missing values for passive smoking characteristics gave rise to diminished numbers of person-years and pancreatic cancer cases for the different passive smoking variables.

  • Adjusted for age, BMI (kg/m2), and level of education (primary school or lower vocational school/intermediate, vocational school or high school/higher vocational school, or college).

  • Reference group.