Table 3.

Age- and sex-adjusted and multivariable-adjusted HRs for pancreatic cancer according to inhalation, filter usage, and tar and nicotine exposure to cigarettes (categorical and continuous analyses), Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer (1986-2002)

All pancreatic cancer cases
Exposure variablePerson-years*No. of cases*Age- and sex-adjustedMultivariable-adjusted
HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)
Inhalation
    Never22,0031301.001.00
    No10,010961.63 (1.23-2.17)1.16 (0.75-1.81)
    Yes24,8702191.58 (1.22-2.06)1.06 (0.64-1.78)
Filter usage
    Never22,0031301.001.00
    Filter-tipped9,756931.74 (1.31-2.32)1.06 (0.64-1.76)
    Non–filter-tipped16,7011551.61 (1.19-2.18)1.02 (0.58-1.79)
Tar (mg/d)
    Never22,0031301.001.00§
    0.1 to <2009,406911.72 (1.28-2.30)0.88 (0.49-1.56)
    200 to <4006,616651.75 (1.24-2.47)0.77 (0.37-1.62)
    ≥4005,089531.85 (1.25-2.73)0.79 (0.34-1.86)
    P for trend0.950.60
    Continuous (increment of 100 mg/d)1.08 (1.03-1.14)1.05 (0.92-1.20)
Nicotine (mg/d)
    Never22,0031301.001.00§
    0.1 to <106,078531.55 (1.10-2.19)0.87 (0.48-1.56)
    10 to <204,973491.78 (1.22-2.58)0.94 (0.47-1.88)
    20 to <303,752411.97 (1.32-2.92)0.99 (0.45-2.20)
    ≥306,407671.88 (1.30-2.70)0.96 (0.42-2.19)
    P for trend0.590.96
Continuous (increment of 10 mg/d)1.07 (1.02-1.12)1.02 (0.92-1.12)
  • *Number of cases and person-years do not add up to the total number because of missing values for covariables.

  • Reference group: never cigarette smokers.

  • Adjusted for age, sex, fruit intake (g/d), BMI (kg/m2), alcohol intake (g/d), frequency (cigarettes/d), duration (y), and current smoking status (yes/no).

  • §Adjusted for age, sex, fruit intake (g/d), BMI (kg/m2), alcohol intake (g/d), duration (y), and current smoking status (yes/no).

  • Never cigarette smokers excluded.