Table 2.

Age- and sex-adjusted and multivariable-adjusted HRs for pancreatic cancer according to cigarette smoking status, frequency, duration and time since cessation (categorical and continuous analyses), Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer (1986-2002)

All pancreatic cancer cases
Cigarette smoking variablePerson-years*No. of cases*Age- and sex-adjustedMultivariable-adjusted
HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)
Smoking status
    Never22,0031301.001.00
    Former smoker20,3831651.37 (1.05-1.78)1.34 (1.02-1.75)
    Current smoker14,7821551.88 (1.44-2.44)1.82 (1.40-2.38)
Frequency (cigarettes/d)
    Never22,0031301.001.00
    0.1 to <1010,103831.42 (1.05-1.91)1.43 (1.06-1.93)
    10 to <2012,0681291.89 (1.42-2.52)1.83 (1.37-2.45)
    ≥2012,9931081.51 (1.12-2.04)1.38 (1.01-1.87)
    P for trend§0.960.55
    Continuous (increment of 10 cigarettes/d)1.12 (1.03-1.23)1.08 (0.98-1.19)
Duration (y)
    Never22,0031301.001.00
    0.1 to <206,693471.29 (0.90-1.86)1.30 (0.90-1.86)
    20 to <4016,9651301.41 (1.07-1.86)1.38 (1.04-1.83)
    ≥4011,5071432.13 (1.61-2.82)2.03 (1.53-2.70)
    P for trend§0.010.02
    Continuous (increment of 10 y)1.16 (1.09-1.23)1.15 (1.08-1.22)
Time since cessation
    Never22,0031301.001.00
    Quit ≥20 y6,311451.17 (0.81-1.71)1.19 (0.81-1.73)
    Quit 15 to <20 y3,073271.43 (0.89-2.27)1.42 (0.89-2.27)
    Quit 10 to <15 y3,890321.45 (0.95-2.22)1.42 (0.92-2.18)
    Quit 0.1 to <10 y7,055611.49 (1.06-2.08)1.41 (1.00-1.98)
    Current smoker14,7821551.88 (1.45-2.44)1.83 (1.40-2.39)
    Continuous (increment of 10 y)§0.85 (0.75-0.97)0.87 (0.76-0.99)
  • *Number of cases and person-years do not add up to the total number because of missing values for covariables.

  • Adjusted for age, sex, fruit intake (g/d), BMI (kg/m2), and alcohol intake (g/d).

  • Reference group: never cigarette smokers.

  • §Never cigarette smokers excluded.