Table 1.

Baseline characteristics (means or percent) of pancreatic cancer cases and subcohort members; Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer (1986-2002)

CharacteristicsMenWomen
Total pancreatic cancer casesSubcohortTotal pancreatic cancer casesSubcohort
n2802,1912402,247
Age, mean ± SD (y)62.0 ± 3.961.3 ± 4.262.5 ± 4.361.4 ± 4.3
Use of tobacco products, n (%)
    Never tobacco smoker14 (5.0)201 (9.2)124 (51.7)1,312 (58.4)
    Ever cigarette smoker181 (64.6)1,322 (60.3)115 (47.9)930 (41.4)
    Ever cigar smoker1 (0.4)46 (2.1)
    Ever pipe smoker2 (0.7)8 (0.4)
    Ever cigar and pipe smoker3 (1.1)23 (1.0)
    Ever cigarette and other type of tobacco smoker79 (28.2)591 (27.0)1 (0.4)5 (0.2)
Cigarette smoking features
    Smoking status, n (%)
        Never20 (7.1)278 (12.7)124 (51.7)1,312 (58.4)
        Former smoker128 (45.7)1,130 (51.6)50 (20.8)463 (20.6)
        Current smoker132 (47.2)783 (35.7)66 (27.5)472 (21.0)
    Duration, mean ± SD (y)*36.1 ± 11.933.7 ± 11.829.0 ± 12.227.8 ± 12.5
    Frequency, mean ± SD (cigarettes/d)*17.3 ± 11.517.0 ± 10.611.4 ± 8.011.4 ± 8.3
    Age at first exposure, mean ± SD (y)*17.3 ± 4.417.1 ± 3.823.3 ± 7.723.7 ± 8.9
    Age at cessation, mean ± SD (y)*48.2 ± 11.046.6 ± 10.249.2 ± 10.346.8 ± 11.1
    Years since cessation, mean ± SD*7.0 ± 10.48.8 ± 10.45.9 ± 9.77.0 ± 10.3
    Inhalation, n (%)*
        No57 (23.0)385 (20.7)57 (49.6)424 (46.5)
        Yes191 (77.0)1,478 (79.3)58 (50.4)487 (53.5)
    Filter usage, n (%)*
        Filter-tipped40 (20.9)244 (17.4)68 (70.8)530 (72.0)
        Non–filter-tipped151 (79.1)1,158 (82.6)28 (29.2)206 (28.0)
    Tar, mean ± SD (mg/d)*357.3 ± 237.3348.0 ± 227.2165.4 ± 149.1156.8 ± 148.5
    Nicotine, mean ± SD (mg/d)*31.3 ± 25.730.2 ± 24.312.5 ± 11.112.3 ± 11.4
Passive smoking
    Spouse smoking status, n (%)
        Never12 (92.3)128 (69.2)21 (18.9)182 (15.8)
        Ever1 (7.7)57 (30.8)90 (81.1)972 (84.2)
    Parental smoking, n (%)
        No parent smoked1 (7.1)47 (24.0)20 (16.5)193 (15.2)
        One or both parents smoked13 (92.9)149 (76.0)101 (83.5)1,079 (84.8)
    Passive smoking exposure at work (past or present), n (%)
        Low exposure5 (41.7)97 (53.3)64 (71.1)578 (60.0)
        High exposure7 (58.3)85 (46.7)26 (28.9)386 (40.0)
    Duration current passive smoking exposure, mean ± SD (h/d)8.2 ± 4.73.7 ± 4.14.7 ± 5.54.4 ± 4.7
BMI, mean ± SD (kg/m2)25.2 ± 3.025.0 ± 2.625.5 ± 3.625.1 ± 3.6
Physical activity (nonoccupational), n (%)
    <30 min/d50 (17.9)396 (18.3)57 (23.9)553 (24.9)
    30-60 min/d94 (33.6)675 (31.2)77 (32.2)691 (31.2)
    60-90 min/d66 (23.6)405 (18.7)62 (25.9)498 (22.5)
    >90 min/d70 (25.0)689 (31.8)43 (18.0)476 (21.5)
Family history of pancreatic cancer, n (%)5 (1.8)22 (1.0)9 (3.8)20 (0.9)
History of diabetes, n (%)21 (7.5)75 (3.4)10 (4.2)80 (3.6)
History of hypertension, n (%)58 (20.7)512 (23.4)73 (30.4)662 (29.5)
Level of education, n (%)
    Low132 (47.5)997 (45.7)137 (57.3)1,266 (56.7)
    Medium89 (32.0)775 (35.6)83 (34.7)771 (34.5)
    High57 (20.5)408 (18.7)19 (8.0)197 (8.8)
Daily intake, mean ± SD
    Energy (kcal)2,164 ± 4662,166 ± 5111,688 ± 3971,686 ± 398
    Total carbohydrates (g)224.0 ± 38.5226.7 ± 37.5177.3 ± 26.8178.8 ± 26.7
    Total fat (g)92.7 ± 13.493.9 ± 14.374.1 ± 10.974.0 ± 10.3
    Alcohol (g)18.0 ± 19.215.0 ± 16.86.6 ± 10.35.9 ± 9.5
    Vegetables (g)192.8 ± 86.1191.6 ± 84.9205.1 ± 85.4195.5 ± 81.3
    Fruit (g)148.6 ± 120.6154.0 ± 114.1192.6 ± 107.8196.4 ± 121.1
  • *Never smokers excluded.

  • Ever smokers excluded.

  • Energy-adjusted intake.