Table 1.

GBM-specific potential serum biomarkers

Sl no.SymbolGene nameFold change
I. Genes overexpressed in grade 4 (GBM) compared with grades II and III (lower-grade astrocytomas)
    1SPP1Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (OPN, bone sialoprotein I, early T-lymphocyte activation 1)5.73
    2CHI3L1Chitinase 3-like 1 (cartilage glycoprotein-39)3.51
    3TIMP1Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (erythroid potentiating activity, collagenase inhibitor)2.69
    4IGFBP2Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2, 36 kDa2.49
    5FSTL1Follistatin-like 11.70
    6CCL2Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21.64
    7SILVSilver homologue (mouse)1.60
    8PSG9Pregnancy specific β-1-glycoprotein 91.60
    9PRLProlactin1.57
    10CYR61Cysteine-rich, angiogenic inducer, 611.54
    11F11Coagulation factor XI (plasma thromboplastin antecedent)1.53
    12VEGFVascular endothelial growth factor1.52
    13CXCL14Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 141.51
    14PLATPlasminogen activator, tissue1.51
    15IGF2Insulin-like growth factor 2 (somatomedin A)1.50
    16GNRH1Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (leutinizing-releasing hormone)1.49
    17SERPINE1Serine (or cysteine) proteinase inhibitor, clade E (nexin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1), member 11.47
    18LAMP2Lysosomal-associated membrane protein 21.47
    19SERPING1Serine (or cysteine) proteinase inhibitor, clade G (C1 inhibitor), member 1 (angioedema, hereditary)1.46
    20BDNFBrain-derived neurotrophic factor1.44
    21APOC3Apolipoprotein C-III1.43
    22CXCL9Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 91.42
    23SERPINC1Serine (or cysteine) proteinase inhibitor, clade C (antithrombin), member 11.41
    24CALUCalumenin1.40
    25SPOCK2Sparc/osteonectin, cwcv and kazal-like domains proteoglycan (testican) 21.38
    26TNCTenascin C (hexabrachion)1.38
    27IL16Interleukin 16 (lymphocyte chemoattractant factor)1.34
    28LAD1Ladinin 11.31
    29AP2A2Adaptor-related protein complex 2, α2 subunit1.30
    30IL6Interleukin 6 (interferon, β2)1.29
    31MAPTMicrotubule-associated protein τ1.25
II. Genes overexpressed in grades II and III (lower-grade astrocytomas) compared with grade IV (GBM)
    1SPARCL1SPARC-like 1 (mast9, hevin)3.27
    2TIMP3Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (Sorsby fundus dystrophy,pseudoinflammatory)2.27
    3GPX3Glutathione peroxidase 3 (plasma)2.02