Table 2.

ORs (95% CIs) of women who did frequent home cooking relative to women in a random sample of the Singapore Chinese Health Study associated with elevated biomarker levels by tertiles

A
Urinary biomarkerSourceOR (95% CI), no. cooks/no. controlsP for trend
1st tertile2nd tertile3rd tertile
HPMAAcrolein1.00 (reference)3.26 (1.10-9.64)3.65 (1.23-10.79)0.028
(7/17)(23/17)(24/16)
HBMA*Crotonaldehyde1.00 (reference)13.51 (4.02-45.43)21.60 (6.06-77.00)<0.0001
(5/30)(24/12)(26/8)
SPMA*Benzene1.00 (reference)2.48 (0.91-6.75)11.10 (3.48-35.41)<0.0001
(10/25)(17/18)(27/7)
MHBMA1,3-Butadiene1.00 (reference)1.87 (0.71-4.96)0.90 (0.31-2.58)0.89
(13/17)(24/17)(11/16)
HEMAEthylene oxide1.00 (reference)0.45 (0.18-1.14)0.43 (0.16-1.13)0.066
(29/17)(13/17)(12/16)
Summed mercapturic acidsAll above1.00 (reference)3.15 (1.00-9.86)3.90 (1.26-12.11)0.024
(6/17)(19/17)(22/16)
1-HOPPyrene1.00 (reference)0.69 (0.26-1.82)1.23 (0.49-3.08)0.65
(19/17)(13/17)(22/16)
PheTPhenanthrene1.00 (reference)0.96 (0.39-2.40)0.31 (0.10-0.92)0.051
(24/17)(23/17)(7/16)
B
Leukocyte DNA biomarkerSourceOR (95% CI), no. cooks/no. controlsP
1st tertile (cooking/random)2nd tertile (cooking/random)3rd tertile (cooking/random)
N2-ethylidene-dGAcetaldehyde1.00 (reference)1.54 (0.48-5.01)0.82 (0.24-2.82)0.78
(13/17)(16/17)(10/16)

NOTE: Adjusted for age at sample collection.

  • *The tertile cutoff values were based on both cooks and controls combined. For all other biomarkers, the tertile cutoff values were based on control subjects only.

  • The sum of HPMA, HBMA, SPMA, MHBMA, and HEMA.