Table 1.

Geometric means of biomarker levels in women who did frequent home cooking (daily cooks) versus women randomly selected from the Singapore Chinese Health Study (random controls)

A
Urinary biomarkerSourceGeometric mean, pmol/mg creatinine (N)P
Daily cooksRandom controls
HPMAAcrolein1,959 (54)1,370 (50)0.038
HBMACrotonaldehyde232 (54)142 (50)0.0004
SPMABenzene0.58 (53)0.18 (50)<0.0001
MHBMA1,3-Butadiene19.3 (48)20.2 (50)0.70
HEMAEthylene oxide20.1 (54)28.3 (50)0.02
Summed mercapturic acids*All above2,476 (47)1,622 (50)0.016
1-HOPPyrene1.00 (54)0.94 (50)0.56
PheTPhenanthrene1.94 (54)2.40 (50)0.11
B
Leukocyte DNA biomarkerSourceGeometric mean, pmol/mg creatinine (N)P
Daily cooksRandom controls
N2-ethylidene-dGAcetaldehyde10,996 (39)15,299 (50)0.22

NOTE: Adjusted for age at sample collection. The urinary biomarkers and leukocyte DNA biomarkers were obtained from different groups of daily cooks, but the random controls were the same for both (see Materials and Methods).

  • *The sum of HPMA, HBMA, SPMA, MHBMA, and HEMA.

  • Three samples could not be analyzed due to technical problems.