Table 2.

MLH1 and MSH2 expression in colorectal crypts at baseline and 6-mo follow-up shown as staining batch–standardized optical density of staining of the immunohistochemically detected biomarkers

Baseline6-mo follow-upAbsolute treatment effect*Relative effect
nMeanSEMP§nMeanSEMPnMeanSEMP
A. Entire crypts
MSH2
Placebo201.010.14201.010.14171.00
Calcium230.860.130.41211.110.140.60210.260.280.361.30
Vitamin D220.750.130.17201.200.140.34190.460.280.111.61
Calcium + vitamin D221.130.130.57211.100.140.6620−0.030.280.930.98
MLH1
Placebo171.040.07181.050.07131.00
Calcium180.980.070.59191.110.070.58170.110.150.441.11
Vitamin D210.930.070.27181.110.070.59180.170.140.241.18
Calcium + vitamin D221.050.070.93171.110.070.56160.050.140.711.05
B. Upper 40% of crypts
MSH2
Placebo200.100.02200.060.02171.00
Calcium230.070.020.27210.090.020.31210.060.040.132.07
Vitamin D220.060.020.18200.110.020.12190.080.040.042.69
Calcium + vitamin D220.070.020.30210.090.020.41200.050.040.181.90
MLH1
Placebo170.330.03180.310.03131.00
Calcium180.310.030.64190.330.030.57170.040.060.471.14
Vitamin D210.300.030.44180.350.030.26180.070.050.181.26
Calcium + vitamin D220.350.030.58170.360.030.20160.030.060.581.10
C. Lower 60% of crypts
MSH2
Placebo200.910.13200.940.13171.00
Calcium230.790.120.48211.020.130.68210.200.260.441.25
Vitamin D220.680.120.20201.090.130.43190.380.260.161.54
Calcium + vitamin D221.050.120.44211.010.130.7320−0.080.260.770.92
MLH1
Placebo170.720.05180.750.05131.00
Calcium180.680.050.58190.780.050.62170.070.100.451.11
Vitamin D210.630.050.22180.760.050.86180.100.100.321.15
Calcium + vitamin D220.700.040.85170.760.050.89160.020.100.811.03
  • *Absolute treatment effect = (treatment group follow-up − treatment group baseline) − (placebo group follow-up − placebo group baseline).

  • Relative effect = [(treatment group follow-up/treatment group baseline)/(placebo follow-up/placebo baseline)]; interpretation as for odds ratio (e.g., a relative effect of 1.6 indicates a proportional increase of 60% in the treatment group relative to that in the placebo group).

  • Standardization for staining batch done by dividing each individual's labeling optical density measurement by the mean measurement of their staining batch. Batch-specific means were calculated among all subjects for the baseline visit and among the placebo group for the follow-up visit.

  • §Evaluates the difference between each treatment group and the placebo group.