Table 1.

Factors associated with HPV-16/18 seropositivity among 285 men in Tucson, Arizona

CharacteristicsBaseline seroprevalenceCrudeAdjusted*
No. subjects (% Seropositive)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
Age
    18-25113 (13.3)1.01.0
    26-3586 (19.8)1.3 (0.7-2.4)0.6 (0.3-1.2)
    36-4486 (58.1)5.6 (3.4-9.3)4.2 (2.2-8.1)
Race
    White237 (29.1)1.0
    Nonwhite38 (26.3)0.7 (0.3-1.3)
Marital status
    Single/never married182 (23.6)1.01.0
    Married/cohabiting69 (34.8)1.6 (0.99-2.7)1.5 (0.8-2.6)
    Divorced/separated/widow34 (44.1)3.2 (1.7-6.1)2.3 (1.02-5.3)
Education
    High school graduate or less69 (26.1)1.0
    Some college/vocational school98 (24.5)1.0 (0.6-1.8)
    College graduate/graduate school118 (33.9)1.2 (0.7-2.1)
Cigarette smoking
    Never95 (21.1)1.01.0
    Former54 (33.3)2.2 (1.2-4.1)2.0 (1.03-3.9)
    Current67 (35.8)1.8 (0.99-3.2)1.5 (0.8-2.8)
Alcohol use (drinks per month)
    0-1366 (33.3)1.0
    14-52103 (29.1)1.0 (0.7-1.3)
    ≥5356 (21.4)0.8 (0.5-1.1)
Circumcision (clinical assessment)
    No35 (31.4)1.0
    Yes250 (28.4)1.1 (0.6-2.0)
Age at first sexual intercourse (y)
    <18160 (33.1)1.4 (0.9-2.2)
    ≥18113 (23.9)1.0
Sexual practice
    Sexual intercourse with women242 (26.4)1.01.0
    Sexual intercourse with men13 (46.2)2.4 (0.9-6.2)2.6 (1.05-6.7)
    Sexual intercourse with both13 (53.8)2.9 (1.01-8.4)2.1 (0.7-5.8)
Lifetime no. of sex partners (either sex)
    0-482 (19.5)1.01.0
    5-16130 (23.1)1.1 (0.6-1.8)0.6 (0.3-1.3)
    ≥1768 (51.5)2.3 (1.3-4.1)1.0 (0.4-2.1)
No. of new sex partners in the past 3 mo
    None160 (27.5)1.0
    One or more94 (29.8)1.0 (0.7-1.3)
Diagnosed with other STI since last visit
    No204 (26.5)1.0
    Yes75 (36.0)1.5 (0.9-2.4)
Had partner(s) with other STI since last visit
    No103 (18.4)1.0
    Yes124 (34.7)1.1 (0.9-1.5)
Condom use in the past 3 mo
    Never86 (30.2)1.0
    Sometimes41 (34.1)1.0 (0.7-1.5)
    Frequently40 (25.0)0.8 (0.5-1.1)
    Always45 (20.0)1.1 (0.7-1.8)
HPV 16/18 infection(s)
    No270 (29.3)1.0
    Yes9 (22.2)1.2 (0.6-2.4)
  • *The final model included age, marital status, cigarette smoking, lifetime number of sexual partners, and sexual practice.

  • Denotes statistical significance (α = 0.05).

  • Other STIs include genital warts, genital Herpes, Chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, nongonococcal urethritis, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HIV.