Table 2.

Geometric means and geometric mean ratios of hair nicotine concentration in nonsmoking women and children by air nicotine concentration at home

Women* (n = 813)Children (n = 906)
Crude (model 1)Adjusted* (model 2)Crude (model 1)Adjusted (model 2)
Hair nicotine (ng/mg), GMGMR (95% CI)Hair nicotine (ng/mg), GMGMR (95% CI)Hair nicotine (ng/mg), GMGMR (95% CI)Hair nicotine (ng/mg), GMGMR (95% CI)
Nicotine concentration (μg/m3)
    <0.010.271.00 (Reference)0.321.00 (Reference)0.391.00 (Reference)0.441.00 (Reference)
    0.01 to≤0.10.281.01 (0.75 1.36)0.300.95 (0.70-1.31)0.411.05 (0.79-1.41)0.491.10 (0.82-1.48)
    0.1 to ≤1.0 0.491.80 (1.34-2.42)0.521.65 (1.21-2.25)0.872.22 (1.67-2.97)1.002.25 (1.67-3.01)
    1.0 to ≤10.00.682.49 (1.77-3.54)0.752.37 (1.66-3.39)1.493.81 (2.74-5.30)1.753.93 (2.77-5.57)
    >10.00.90§3.29 (1.27-8.54)0.94§2.99 (1.18-7.57)3.047.78 (3.80-15.9)3.006.75 (2.92-15.58)

Abbreviations: GM, geometric mean; GMR, geometric mean ratio.

  • *Adjusted for age, education status, employment status, and chemical hair treatment. Age: binary (0, <34; 1, ≥34 y); education status: binary (0, less than high school; 1, high school or more than high school); employment status: binary (0, no; 1, yes]; hair treatment: binary (0, no; 1, yes).

  • Adjusted for age and total time spent at home. Age: binary (0, <6; 1, ≥6 y]; total time spent at home: binary (0, <19 h; 1, ≥19 h).

  • P < 0.01.

  • §0.05 < P ≤ 0.01.