Table 1.

Median and IQR of hair nicotine concentration in nonsmoking women and children living in households with smokers by region, air nicotine concentration at home, and socioeconomic characteristics

WomenChildren
nMedian (ng/mg; IQR)PnMedian (ng/mg; IQR)P
Overall8520.44 (0.15-1.13)1,0170.80 (0.27-2.24)
% <LOD28.06.7
Region
    Asia4180.53 (0.23-1.65)<0.0014270.89 (0.32-2.51)0.001
    Latin America2150.26 (0.09-0.75)2630.54 (0.17-1.56)
    Europe and Middle East2190.46 (0.14-1.03)3271.01 (0.27-2.95)
Air nicotine at home (μg/m3)
    <0.011320.31 (0.14-0.76)<0.0011440.52 (0.16-1.40)<0.001
    0.01 to ≤0.12520.33 (0.14-0.76)2880.49 (0.14-1.15)
    0.1 to ≤1.02970.55 (0.19-1.94)3571.05 (0.42-2.95)
    1.0 to ≤10.01630.66 (0.25-1.34)2121.61 (0.50-4.69)
    >10.080.66 (0.39-4.22)163.70 (0.70-8.26)
Children age (y)
    <64901.21 (0.36-3.43)<0.001
    ≥65270.63 (0.22-1.63)
Total time spent at home (h/d)
    <194520.65 (0.24-1.73)<0.001
    ≥194600.94 (0.28-3.18)
Women age (y)
    <344510.44 (0.14-1.14)0.48
    ≥344010.44 (0.17-1.10)
Women education
    Less than high school3910.44 (0.17-1.20)0.274320.81 (0.28-2.29)0.37
    High school or more than high school4100.44 (0.14-1.13)5310.74 (0.24-2.03)
Women employment
    Unemployed2950.45 (0.14-1.31)0.673550.96 (0.25-3.50)0.009
    Employed5070.44 (0.16-1.12)6080.68 (0.26-1.81)
Women chemical hair treatment
    No5560.47 (0.15-1.30)0.03
    Yes2570.37 (0.15-0.91)

NOTE: P values: from tests for heterogeneity of hair nicotine concentrations by participant characteristics (“Region,” “SHS level,” “Number of cigarettes”: The Kruskal Wallis test, Others: The Wilcoxon test).