Table 5.

Association between higher order multiple birth and childhood cancer among children weighing ≤4,000 g at birth

Cancer typeTwins vs. singletons
Triplets or higher vs. singletons
n (%)OR* (95% CI)n (%)OR* (95% CI)
Controls1,252 (2.5)Ref41 (0.08)Ref
All cancers338 (2.2)0.93 (0.81-1.06)14 (0.09)1.12 (0.59-2.13)
Central nervous system tumors67 (2.1)0.88 (0.68-1.14)4 (0.12)1.62 (0.56-4.67)
Embryonal tumors105 (2.4)0.95 (0.77-1.17)6 (0.14)1.19 (0.48-2.97)
  • * Adjusted for maternal race, maternal age, sex, state, gestational age, birth year, birth order, and birth weight.

  • Includes neuroblastoma, retinoblastoma, Wilms' tumor, hepatoblastoma, intracranial embryonal central nervous system, and rhabdomyosarcoma.

  • Four cases were hepatoblastoma, one was retinoblastoma, and one was Wilms' tumor.