Table 4.

Adjusted ORs for the association between risk factors and subsequent development of pancreatic cancer

Risk factorsAdjusted OR* (95% CI)P
H. pylori IgG serology
    Negative1.000.57
    Positive0.85 (0.49-1.48)
H. pylori CagA serology
    IgG negative and CagA negative1.00
    CagA negative vs uninfected1.01 (0.54-1.91)0.96
    CagA positive vs uninfected0.96 (0.48-1.92)0.91
Cigarette smoking
    Never1.00
    Ever2.09 (1.17-3.74)0.01
    Former2.20 (1.04-4.63)0.04
    <1 packs/d1.93 (1.01-3.73)0.04
    ≥2 packs/d2.43 (1.23-4.82)0.01
Education
    Less than college1.00
    College and beyond2.13 (1.23-3.69)0.01
  • * ORs obtained by conditional logistic regression and adjusted for the two other variables in the table. The variables BMI, alcohol consumption, and diabetes mellitus did not have any significant effect and were not kept in the final model.

  • A separate multivariate analysis was conducted to test for the effect of the H. pylori CagA protein. Six cases and three controls were both IgG negative and CagA positive; they were excluded from this analysis. Redoing the analysis with these subjects counted as H. pylori positive gave similar results.