Table 3.

Unadjusted ORs for the association between risk factors and subsequent development of pancreatic cancer

Risk factorsUnadjusted OR* (95% CI)P
H. pylori IgG serology
    Negative1.000.13
    Positive0.68 (0.41-1.12)
H. pylori CagA serology
    IgG negative and CagA negative1.00
    IgG positive and CagA negative0.85 (0.48-1.53)0.60
    IgG positive and CagA positive0.88 (0.46-1.69)0.70
BMI
    Normal (<25)1.00
    Overweight (≥25 and <30)0.95 (0.57-1.60)0.87
    Obese (≥30)0.99 (0.44-2.25)0.92
Cigarette smoking
    Never1.00
    Former2.32 (1.12-4.80)0.02
    <1 pack/d2.06 (1.09-3.91)0.03
    ≥1 pack/d2.44 (1.26-4.73)0.008
Education
    Less than high school1.00
    High/business school1.17 (0.57-2.40)0.67
    College and beyond2.69 (1.30-5.56)0.007
Alcohol consumption
    Never1.00
    Former0.88 (0.22-3.56)0.86
    ≤2 drinks/d1.93 (0.99-3.75)0.05
    >2 drinks/d0.62 (0.21-1.85)0.39
Diabetes mellitus
    Never diagnosed1.00
    Ever diagnosed0.93 (0.25-3.44)0.91
  • * Unadjusted effects of the variables of interest were obtained by fitting a univariable conditional logistic regression model for each of the covariates. Twenty-four drinkers and one smoker with “no amount stated” have been excluded from this particular analysis.

  • A separate analysis was conducted to test for the effect of H. pylori CagA protein. Six cases and three controls were both IgG negative and CagA positive; they were excluded from this separate CagA analysis. Redoing the analysis with these subjects counted as H. pylori positive gave similar results.