Table 1.

Demographic characteristics and risk factors for pancreatic cancer among original cases and pulled controls (before matching)

VariablesTotal cases (n = 141)Total controls (n = 730)Controls from previous studies
Gastric lymphoma study 10 (n = 118)Gastric carcinoma study 9 (n = 180)Colon cancer study 11 (n = 228)Heart study 32 (n = 204)
Gender,* n (%)
    Female69 (49)334 (46)69 (58)62 (34)116 (51)87 (43)
    Male72 (51)395 (54)49 (42)117 (65)112 (49)117 (57)
Race,* n (%)
    Missing1 (1)4 (1)003 (1)1 (0)
    Black28 (20)103 (14)10 (8)35 (19)18 (8)40 (20)
    White109 (77)601 (82)98 (83)142 (79)198 (87)163 (80)
    Other3 (2)22 (3)10 (8)3 (2)9 (4)0
Age at MHC,* y
    Mean (SD)49 (10)52 (10)53 (13)54 (11)52 (9)50 (8)
Year of MHC,* n (%)
    1964-196559 (42)303 (42)59 (50)76 (42)151 (66)17 (8)
    1966-196757 (40)216 (30)39 (33)69 (38)63 (28)45 (22)
    1968-196925 (18)211 (28)20 (17)35 (20)14 (6)142 (70)
MHC location,* n (%)
    Missing1 (1)00000
    Oakland74 (52)372 (51)64 (54)92 (51)107 (47)109 (53)
    San Francisco66 (47)358 (49)54 (46)88 (49)121 (53)95 (47)
Education, n (%)
    Missing5 (4)11 (2)3 (2)5 (3)3 (1)0
    Less than high school21 (15)164 (22)26 (22)45 (25)64 (28)29 (14)
    High/business school47 (33)289 (40)54 (46)59 (33)103 (45)73 (36)
    College and beyond25 (48)266 (36)35 (30)71 (39)58 (26)102 (50)
Smoking, n (%)
    Missing10 (7)60 (8)6 (5)21 (12)21 (9)12 (6)
    Never32 (23)279 (38)46 (39)58 (32)99 (44)76 (37)
    Former21 (15)117 (16)19 (16)34 (19)28 (12)36 (18)
    <1 pack/d39 (28)136 (19)27 (23)40 (22)35 (15)34 (17)
    ≥1 pack/d39 (28)138 (19)20 (17)27 (15)45 (20)46 (22)
Alcohol, n (%)
    Missing12 (8)96 (13)15 (13)27 (15)35 (15)19 (9)
    Never24 (17)157 (21)32 (27)41 (23)51 (23)33 (16)
    Former4 (3)19 (3)4 (3)6 (3)7 (3)2 (1)
    <2 drinks/d90 (64)377 (52)54 (46)91 (51)110 (48)122 (60)
    ≥2 drinks/d11 (8)81 (11)13 (11)15 (8)25 (11)28 (14)
BMI, n (%)
    Missing4 (3)12 (2)3 (2)5 (3)4 (2)0
    <2572 (51)368 (50)60 (22)80 (44)120 (53)108 (53)
    ≥25 and <3050 (35)270 (37)40 (46)75 (42)80 (35)75 (37)
    ≥3015 (11)80 (11)15 (30)20 (11)24 (10)21 (10)
H. pylori, n (%)
    Indeterminate12 (9)5 (1)0005 (2)
    HP negative62 (44)277 (38)46 (39)74 (41)74 (32)83 (41)
    HP positive67 (48)448 (61)72 (61)106 (59)154 (68)116 (57)
CagA, n (%)
    CagA negative87 (62)407 (56)39 (33)110 (61)142 (62)116 (57)
    CagA positive50 (35)232 (32)27 (23)60 (33)83 (36)62 (30)
  • Abbreviations: MHC, multiphasic health checkup; HP, H. pylori.

  • * Matching variable in each of the previous studies.