Table 5.

Down-regulated genes most commonly reported in cancer versus normal expression profiling studies

Gene nameDescriptionStudiesStudies with fold changeTotal sample sizesTotal sample sizes with fold changeMean fold changeRangeValidation
CA2Carbonic anhydrase II11 (8, 17, 19-22, 53, 55, 57-59)7474352-15.51-56.00 to -2.30RT-PCR (53, 58)
MALLMal, T-cell differentiation protein-like7 (17, 19-21, 51, 57, 59)5244180-5.34-10.50 to -1.70None found
CEACAM1Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (biliary glycoprotein)7 (8, 17, 19, 21, 22, 58, 59)5222158-10.40-40.00 to -1.38RT-PCR (17, 58)
Six studies: greatest sample size
HSD11B2Hydroxysteroid (11-β) dehydrogenase 26 (8, 17, 20-22, 57)5224184-4.47-7.60 to -2.23Northern blot (68)
Six studies: moderate sample size
SLC26A2Solute carrier family 26 (sulfate transporter), member 26 (8, 18, 20-22, 59)4190148-6.78-9.09 to -4.04None found
FCGBPFc fragment of IgG-binding protein6 (19-22, 48, 57)4215130-4.88-7.00 to -1.31None found
Six studies: lowest sample size
ACADSAcyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, C-2 to C-3 short chain6 (8, 17, 19, 20, 22, 58)5168128-7.11-20.00 to -2.00None found
CKBCreatine kinase, brain6 (19-22, 53, 57)4188130-3.11-5.00 to -1.10Western blot (69)
Five studies: greatest sample size
CLUClusterin5 (17, 21, 47, 53, 58)3178120-3.83-5.60 to -1.10Immunohistochemistry (70)
CES2Carboxylesterase 2 (intestine, liver)5 (17, 20-22, 59)4186162-3.58-6.30 to -1.15None found
Five studies: moderate sample size
CA1Carbonic anhydrase I5 (17, 19, 20, 22, 57)4146106-36.90-59.00 to -5.30RT-PCR (57)
GPA33Glycoprotein A33 (transmembrane)5 (8, 19, 21, 52, 59)313186-12.51-32.50 to -1.70None found
KRT20Keratin 205 (17, 19, 21, 22, 57)4176136-8.31-20.40 to -1.65None found
SELENBP1Selenium-binding protein 15 (19, 20-22, 59)4154130-2.80-3.45 to -1.11Western blot, immunohistochemistry, mass spectrometry (71)
Five studies: lowest sample size
CA12Carbonic anhydrase XII5 (8, 19, 22, 57, 59)312662-4.41-7.69 to -2.50Immunohistochemistry (25)*
FABP1Fatty acid binding protein 1, liver5 (19, 20, 53, 57, 59)211634-4.28-5.56 to -3.00RT-PCR (57)
  • NOTE: The 16 down-regulated genes reported in at least five independent studies with consistent direction are presented here. Genes reported by five and six studies were further subdivided into semiquantitative categories based on the lowest (Q1), moderate (interquartile range), and greatest (values greater than those in Q3) number of tissue samples to give greater importance to the average fold change criteria for ranking genes when total sample numbers were similar. Validation studies that report a gene as differentially expressed in the opposite direction from that of the meta-analysis are marked with an asterisk.