Table 4.

Up-regulated genes most commonly reported in cancer versus normal expression profiling studies

Gene nameDescriptionStudiesStudies with fold changeTotal sample sizesTotal sample sizes with fold changeMean fold changeRangeValidation
TGFβITransforming growth factor- β induced, 68 kDa9 (8, 19-22, 47, 51, 54, 57)83693298.941.11-32.00RT-PCR (8, 19, 51, 54, 57)
IFITM1IFN-induced transmembrane protein 1 (9-27)9 (19, 20, 48, 51-54, 57, 58)43511877.523.00-12.00RT-PCR (51, 57)
MYCV-myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homologue (avian)7 (20, 21, 51, 54, 56, 58, 59)43292435.021.69-7.50RT-PCR (6, 51, 54, 58)
SPARCSecreted protein, acidic, cysteine-rich (osteonectin)7 (19-22, 51, 58, 59)52441806.301.27-15.00Immunohistochemistry (39)*
GDF15Growth differentiation factor 157 (8, 18, 19, 21, 22, 51, 58)52301727.421.58-12.20RT-PCR (19, 51)
Six studies: greatest sample size
CXCL1Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (melanoma growth-stimulating activity, α)6 (17, 18, 21, 20, 54, 58)42872296.542.74-10.50RT-PCR (18, 21)
Six studies: moderate sample size
CDC25BCell division cycle 25 homologue B (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)6 (17, 20, 21, 51, 57, 58)42561764.931.81-9.20RT-PCR (17)
HMBG1High-mobility group box 16 (8, 22, 48, 53, 54, 58)32641613.272.66-3.91Western blot, immunohistochemistry (61)
Six studies: lowest sample size
IFITM2IFN-induced transmembrane protein 2 (1-8D)6 (8, 19, 20, 52, 57, 59)3141567.093.00-13.00RT-PCR (32)
COL1A2Collagen, type I, α26 (19-22, 53, 59)41721306.932.96-12.00None found
Five studies: greatest sample size
CKS2CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 25 (17, 21, 22, 51, 54)52852854.211.79-7.20RT-PCR (17, 51)
TOP2ATopoisomerase (DNA) IIα, 170 kDa5 (21, 45, 51, 54, 58)42772373.611.05-5.60Northern blot, Western blot (62)
UBE2CUbiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C5 (20-22, 48, 54)42742293.031.48-5.00RT-PCR (63)
Five studies: moderate sample size
CDH3Cadherin 3, type 1, P-cadherin (placental)5 (8, 20, 21, 49, 51)519419418.162.78-74.00Western blot (64)
INHBAInhibin, βA (activin A, activin AB α polypeptide)5 (20-22, 49, 58)419815811.051.71-37.00RT-PCR (65)
SLC12A2Solute carrier family 12 (sodium/potassium/chloride transporters), member 25 (19, 48, 49, 54, 59)320813910.583.58-15.15RT-PCR (54)
MMP11Matrix metallopeptidase 11 (stromelysin 3)5 (20-22, 49, 51)52082084.221.74-5.70Western blot, immunohistochemistry (66)
CSE1LCSE1 chromosome segregation 1-like (yeast)5 (17, 20-22, 48)42071623.741.14-5.00None found
HNRPA1Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A15 (19, 21, 22, 54, 57)42432032.891.01-4.50RT-PCR (67)
Five studies: lowest sample size
CDK10Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDC2-like) 105 (19-21, 45, 49)515015013.852.66-17.59None found
COL3A1Collagen, type III, α1 (Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV, autosomal dominant)5 (21, 22, 47, 53, 58)31781204.311.24-9.38RT-PCR (53)
COL4A1Collagen, type IV, α15 (20-22)31681262.701.05-4.00None found
  • NOTE: The 22 up-regulated genes reported in at least five independent studies with consistent direction are presented here. Genes reported by five and six studies were further subdivided into semiquantitative categories based on the lowest (Q1), moderate (interquartile range), and greatest (values greater than those in Q3) number of tissue samples to give greater importance to the average fold change criteria for ranking genes when total sample numbers were similar. Validation studies that report a gene as differentially expressed in the opposite direction from that of the meta-analysis are marked with an asterisk.