Table 1.

Characteristics of the study sample

Total (n = 161)Controls (n = 41)FS (n = 40)LF (n = 40)FS + LF (n = 40)Significance
Age (y), range = 36-73
Mean ± SD59.2 ± 7.358.2 ± 6.860.2 ± 7.059.2 ± 8.059.3 ± 7.6NS
<65, % (n)74 (119)78 (32)73 (29)70 (28)75 (30)NS
≥65, % (n)26 (42)22 (9)27 (11)30 (12)25 (10)
Race, % (n)
White70 (112)68 (28)67 (27)70 (28)72 (29)NS
African American26 (42)27 (11)28 (11)25 (10)25 (10)
Other4 (7)5 (2)5 (2)5 (2)3 (1)
Education, % (n)
High school or less/unknown9 (15)7 (3)8 (3)10 (4)13 (5)NS
High school graduate/GED20 (32)22 (9)20 (8)18 (7)20 (8)
    Some college/trade29 (46)32 (13)32 (13)30 (12)20 (8)
College graduate/postgraduate42 (68)39 (16)40 (16)42 (17)47 (19)
Current smoker, % (n)11 (18)15 (6)13 (5)5 (2)13 (5)NS
Body mass index (kg/m2)* % (n)
Mean ± SD28.8 ± 4.128.8 ± 4.028.5 ± 3.929.5 ± 4.328.5 ± 4.5NS
18.5-24.9 (normal weight), % (n)19 (31)20 (8)22 (9)15 (6)20 (8)
    25-29.9 (overweight), % (n)46 (74)46 (19)45 (18)47 (19)45 (18)
≥30 (obese), % (n)35 (56)34 (14)33 (13)38 (15)35 (14)
Comorbidity, % (n)
Cardiovascular disease35 (57)34 (14)28 (11)38 (15)43 (17)NS
Diabetes17 (27)12 (5)23 (9)15 (6)18 (7)
Medication use, % (n)
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents38 (61)39 (16)33 (13)40 (16)40 (16)NS
Statins25 (41)29 (12)20 (8)30 (12)23 (9)
Thiazolidinediones8 (13)10 (4)10 (4)3 (4)10 (4)
PSA at diagnosis (ng/mL), % (n)
Mean ± SD5.7 ± 3.85.2 ± 2.75.2 ± 2.45.6 ± 5.06.8 ± 4.3NS
<423 (38)27 (11)23 (9)28 (11)18 (7)NS
4-1070 (112)63 (26)72 (29)70 (28)72 (29)
10-206 (9)10 (4)5 (2)0 (0)8 (3)
>201 (2)0 (0)0 (0)2 (1)2 (1)
Biopsy Gleason score
≤5 (2,2/2,3/3,2)1 (4)05 (2)05 (2)NS
6 (3,3)63 (102)66 (27)60 (24)67 (27)60 (24)
7 (3,4)24 (39)22 (9)27 (11)27 (11)20 (8)
7 (4,3)6 (10)7 (3)5 (2)3 (1)10 (4)
≥8 (4,4/5,3/5,4)4 (6)5 (2)3 (1)3 (1)5 (2)
  • NOTE: No participants were underweight (body mass index < 18.5).