Table 2.

Summary relative risks (95% CIs) of pancreatic cancer with leisure-time, moderate, and vigorous physical activity in all prospective studies and in subgroups according to study characteristics

n studies/n estimatesRR (95% CI)PHeterogeneityPInteraction
Leisure-time physical activity
    All prospective studies14/170.94 (0.84, 1.05)0.60
Region
        North America6/61.06 (0.88, 1.28)0.39
        Europe5/60.84 (0.70, 1.02)0.780.08
        Asia3/50.88 (0.69, 1.13)0.580.23
    Sex*
        Men9/90.92 (0.78, 1.09)0.960.79
        Women8/80.90 (0.70, 1.16)0.22
Follow-up (y)
        <104/40.90 (0.74, 1.11)0.380.71
        ≥1010/130.95 (0.83, 1.09)0.55
Adjustment for BMI or diabetes
        Yes11/130.93 (0.81, 1.06)0.880.84
        No3/40.88 (0.59, 1.29)0.07
Moderate physical activity
    All prospective studies6/70.83 (0.58, 1.18)<0.001
    Region
        North America5/50.76 (0.47, 1.24)0.0010.62
        Multiethnic1/20.95 (0.50, 1.82)0.01
    Sex*
        Men2/20.75 (0.24, 2.36)0.0010.89
        Women4/40.75 (0.51, 1.09)0.09
    Follow-up (y)
        <101/20.95 (0.50, 1.82)0.010.62
        ≥105/50.76 (0.47, 1.24)0.001
    Adjustment for BMI or diabetes
        Yes5/60.77 (0.50, 1.17)<0.0010.46
        No1/11.14 (0.79, 1.65)NA
Vigorous physical activity
    All prospective studies7/70.94 (0.80, 1.12)0.72
    Region
        North America6/60.89 (0.73, 1.07)0.900.15
        Europe1/11.21 (0.83, 1.77)NA
    Sex*
        Men2/21.04 (0.68, 1.60)0.250.20
        Women4/40.79 (0.59,1.06)0.46
    Follow-up (y)
        <102/21.06 (0.82, 1.35)0.350.23
        ≥105/50.86 (0.68, 1.08)0.85
    Adjustment for BMI or diabetes
        Yes6/60.95 (0.79, 1.13)0.590.96
        No1/10.93 (0.55, 1.57)NA
  • Abbreviation: RR, relative risk.

  • * Included only studies that reported sex-specific estimates.