Table 1.

Studies included in the systematic review

SourceCountrySexAge (y)n cohort or controlsn cases
Prospective cohort studies
Davey Smith et al., 2000 (17)UKM40-646,70230
Nilsen and Vatten, 2000 (20)NorwayM or F≥3063,374*166*
Batty et al., 2001 (16)UKM40-6411,66380
Michaud et al., 2001 (15)United StatesM40-7546,115139
United StatesF30-5577,559110
Isaksson et al., 2002 (26)SwedenM or F36-7521,884*176*
Stolzenberg-Solomon et al., 2002 (32)FinlandM50-6929,048172
Lee et al., 2003 (27)United StatesM or FMean, 47.132,687212
Patel et al., 2005 (18)United StatesM or F50-74145,627242
Sinner et al., 2005 (31)United StatesF55-6938,002209
Berrington de González et al., 2006 (25)9 European countriesM or F19-84438,405*324*
Lin et al., 2007 (28)JapanM or F40-79100,932*402*
Luo et al., 2007 (29)JapanM or F40-6999,670224
Nöthlings et al., 2007 (30)United States (multiethnic)M or F45-75167,430472
Stolzenberg-Solomon et al., 2008 (19)United StatesM or F50-71294,609399
Calton et al., 2008 (33)United StatesFMean, 61.233,53070
Nested case-control studies
Inoue et al., 2003 (34)JapanM or F30-892,000200
Retrospective case-control studies
Eberle et al., 2005 (35)United StatesM or F22-851,701532
Hanley et al., 2001 (36)CanadaM or FNA2,919312
Source
Self-report physical activity (year of measurement)
Case ascertainment
Follow-up (y)
Adjustments
Prospective cohort studies
Davey Smith et al., 2000 (17)Leisure-time physical activity (1969-1970)National health registry∼25Age, smoking, BMI, employment grade, forced expiratory volume in 1 s
Nilsen and Vatten, 2000 (20)Leisure-time physical activity (1984-1986)National cancer registryMean, 9.8Age‡
Batty et al., 2001 (16)Transport physical activity (1967-1969)National health registry∼25Age, smoking, BMI, employment grade, forced expiratory volume in 1 s
Michaud et al., 2001 (15)Leisure-time physical activity, vigorous activity, moderate activity (1986)Self-report confirmed by medical records, pathology reports, and death certificate∼12Age, smoking, height, diabetes, cholecystectomy. moderate activity (for vigorous activity)
Leisure-time physical activity, vigorous activity, moderate activity (1986)Self-report confirmed by medical records, pathology reports, and death certificate∼10Age, smoking, height, diabetes, cholecystectomy, moderate activity (for vigorous activity)
Isaksson et al., 2002 (26)Occupational physical activity, leisure-time physical activity (1961)National cancer registryMedian, 16Age, sex, smoking
Stolzenberg-Solomon et al., 2002 (32)Total physical activity, occupational physical activity, leisure-time physical activity (1985)National cancer registrymedian 10.2Age, smoking, diabetes, bronchial asthma, high blood pressure
Lee et al., 2003 (27)Leisure-time physical activity, light activity, moderate activity, vigorous activity (baseline in 1962 or 1966 and updated later)University records of deceased alumni confirmed by death certificate∼0.30Age, sex, smoking, diabetes; each physical activity component was adjusted for the remaining components
Patel et al., 2005 (18)Leisure-time physical activity (1992)National death index, state cancer registry, and medical records∼0.7Age, sex, smoking, height, diabetes, education, family history of pancreatic cancer, gallbladder disease, energy intake
Sinner et al., 2005 (37)Leisure-time physical activity, moderate activity, vigorous activity (1986)State cancer registry∼0.15Age, smoking, multivitamin
Berrington de González et al., 2006 (25)Total physical activity, leisure-time physical activity, occupational physical activity, vigorous activity (1991-2000)Mainly national or regional cancer registriesMean, 6Age, sex, smoking, diabetes, country
Lin et al., 2007 (28)Leisure-time physical activity (1988-1990)Population-based cancer registry and death certificate∼0.15Age, smoking, BMI, diabetes, gallbladder diseases
Luo et al., 2007 (29)Leisure-time physical activity (1990 or 1993-1994)Population-based cancer registry and death certificateMean, 11Age, smoking, BMI, diabetes, study area, alcohol, history of cholelithiasis
Nöthlings et al., 2007 (30)Total physical activity, moderate activity(1993-1996)State and regional cancer registriesMean, 8.3Age, smoking, BMI, diabetes, ethnicity, family history of pancreatic cancer, energy intake, meat
Stolzenberg-Solomon et al., 2008 (19)Leisure-time physical activity, light activity, vigorous activity (1995-1996)State cancer registries and national death index∼0.5Age, sex, smoking, BMI, diabetes, race
Calton et al., 2008 (33)Total physical activity, moderate activity, vigorous activity (1987)National death index, state cancer registry, and pathology reports∼0.11Age, smoking, BMI, height, diabetes, race; moderate activity, and vigorous activity were mutually adjusted
Nested case-control studies
Inoue et al., 2003 (34)Leisure-time physical activity (1988-1999)Hospital-based and population-based cancer registries1-13Age, sex, diabetes, family history of pancreatic cancer, bowel habits, vegetable intake, alcohol
Retrospective case-control studies
Eberle et al., 2005 (35)Leisure-time physical activity (1995-1999)State cancer registry and medical recordsNAMen: age, smoking, education; women: age
Hanley et al., 2001 (36)Leisure-time physical activity, moderate activity, vigorous activity (1994-1997)Provincial cancer registriesNAMen: age, maximum BMI, percent change in weight, province, caloric intake, leisure-time physical activity (for moderate and vigorous activity); women: age, smoking, province, age at menarche
  • Abbreviations: M, male; F, female; NA, not applicable.

  • * Total cohort-case numbers do not equal cohort-case numbers for physical activity due to missing data.

  • Included two studies: Health Professionals Follow-up Study (male) and Nurses' Health Study (female).

  • Men and women were analyzed separately.