Table 1.

Characteristics of colorectal cancer cases and controls: median (interquartile range), except where noted

Male
Female
Case (n = 1,143)Control (n = 1,143)Case (n = 816)Control (n = 816)
Age, y67 (60-73)67 (60-73)67 (58-73)67 (58-73)
Ethnicity*
    Japanese605 (53)605 (53)447 (55)447 (55)
    Caucasian303 (27)303 (27)192 (24)192 (24)
    Native Hawaiian116 (10)116 (10)85 (10)85 (10)
    Filipino70 (6)70 (6)50 (6)50 (6)
    Chinese49 (4)49 (4)42 (5)42 (5)
Family history*,158 (14)87 (8)129 (16)60 (7)
Lifetime recreational activities, h3,264 (288-10,080)5,184 (1,008-12,348)384 (0-2,880)624 (0-3,384)
Body mass index 5 y ago, kg/m225 (23-28)24 (22-27)23 (21-26)23 (21-26)
Dietary intake
    Energy, kcal/d2,338 (1,796-3,035)2,119 (1,657-2,712)1,756 (1,321-2,228)1,650 (1,270-2,120)
    NSP from vegetables, g/d3.0 (1.8-4.4)3.6 (2.2-5.0)3.0 (2.1-4.1)3.5 (2.3-5.0)
    Total calcium§, mg/d718 (507-1,108)782 (543-1,460)763 (489-2,307)984 (510-3,998)
    Alcohol, g/d2.3 (0.1-24)1.3 (0.1-16)0.1 (0-0.4)0.1 (0-0.3)
    Eggs, g/d18 (10-36)15 (7-27)12 (5-22)8 (4-17)
    Methionine, g/d1.8 (1.6-2.1)1.8 (1.6-2.1)1.4 (1.2-1.6)1.4 (1.3-1.6)
Smoking characteristics*
    Never smoker298 (26)380 (33)489 (60)529 (65)
    Former smoker615 (54)584 (51)214 (26)185 (23)
    Current smoker230 (20)179 (16)113 (14)101 (12)
    Age started18 (16-20)18 (16-20)20 (18-25)20 (18-25)
    Time since smoking commenced, y48 (41-54)48 (41-55)42 (33-50)41 (33-49)
    Amount, cigarettes/pipes/cigars per day20 (15-36)20 (11-30)15 (8-20)10 (6-20)
    Duration, y33 (22-43)31 (19-42)31 (18-43)28 (13-37)
    Pack-years
        All tobacco products36 (17-59)28 (12-48)20 (7-40)15 (5-35)
        Non-filtered cigarettes16 (7-33)11 (5-24)9 (3-20)5 (1,11)
        Filtered cigarettes28 (14-45)23 (10-40)19 (7-35)16 (7-30)
        Cigars2 (1-6)2 (0-5)3 (2-3)2 (2-4)
        Pipe1 (0-4)1 (0-4)****
  • Abbreviation: NSP, non-starch polysaccharides.

  • * n (%).

  • Family history of colorectal cancer among parents and siblings.

  • Dietary intakes (except energy) are calorie adjusted.

  • § From foods and supplements.

  • Among smokers.

  • Among smokers of specific tobacco product.

  • ** No data available, only two women reported pipe smoking.