Table 5.

RR and 95% CI for prostate cancer according to tertiles of dietary γ-tocopherol, stratified by smoking status and total selenium intake, in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

Tertiles of dietary γ-tocopherol (mg/d), RR* (95% CI)
Ptrend
Total no.1 (<11.5)2 (11.6-15.9)3 (>15.9)
Nonsmoker
    All cases3,2371.00 (reference)0.99 (0.90-1.09)0.97 (0.87-1.08)0.54
    Localized cases2,7881.00 (reference)1.02 (0.92-1.13)1.01 (0.90-1.13)0.96
    Advanced cases4491.00 (reference)0.86 (0.67-1.11)0.77 (0.58-1.02)0.07
Former smoker
    All cases6,1161.00 (reference)0.93 (0.87-0.99)0.95 (0.88-1.02)0.23
    Localized cases5,2281.00 (reference)0.94 (0.87-1.01)0.97 (0.89-1.06)0.59
    Advanced cases8881.00 (reference)0.86 (0.72-1.03)0.82 (0.67-1.00)0.06
Current smoker
    All cases8781.00 (reference)1.09 (0.91-1.31)1.17 (0.96-1.43)0.12
    Localized cases7401.00 (reference)1.08 (0.89-1.33)1.19 (0.96-1.47)0.12
    Advanced cases1381.00 (reference)1.13 (0.72-1.78)1.08 (0.66-1.79)0.79
Low selenium intake (<94.5 μg/d)
    All cases3,4811.00 (reference)1.00 (0.91-1.09)0.94 (0.85-1.04)0.24
    Localized cases2,9801.00 (reference)1.02 (0.92-1.12)0.99 (0.89-1.11)0.91
    Advanced cases5011.00 (reference)0.89 (0.71-1.11)0.67 (0.51-0.88)0.005
Moderate selenium intake (94.5-116 μg/d)
    All cases3,3251.00 (reference)0.99 (0.90-1.09)1.00 (0.90-1.11)0.93
    Localized cases2,8591.00 (reference)1.01 (0.91-1.12)1.03 (0.92-1.15)0.62
    Advanced cases4661.00 (reference)0.85 (0.66-1.10)0.85 (0.64-1.12)0.29
High selenium intake (>116 μg/d)
    All cases3,4251.00 (reference)0.90 (0.82-0.99)0.96 (0.86-1.06)0.64
    Localized cases2,9171.00 (reference)0.90 (0.81-0.99)0.96 (0.86-1.08)0.73
    Advanced cases5081.00 (reference)0.92 (0.72-1.18)0.93 (0.71-1.23)0.70
  • NOTE: All Pinteraction > 0.05, with the exception of selenium intake and advanced prostate cancer (P = 0.007).

  • * Adjusted for age, race, smoking status (except in models stratified by smoking), education, personal history of diabetes, family history of prostate cancer, body mass index, and daily dietary intakes of red meat, α-linolenic acid, vitamin C (including supplements), β-carotene (including supplements), and total energy.

  • Includes selenium intakes from diet and supplements.