Table 4.

RR and 95% CI for prostate cancer according to categories of supplemental vitamin E intake, stratified by smoking status, in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

Supplemental vitamin E (IU/d)*, RR (95% CI)
Ptrend
Total no.0>0-399400-799≥800
Nonsmoker
    All cases3,2441.00 (reference)1.03 (0.94-1.12)1.03 (0.91-1.16)1.04 (0.86-1.25)0.82
    Localized cases2,7941.00 (reference)1.02 (0.93-1.13)1.05 (0.92-1.19)1.10 (0.91-1.34)0.33
    Advanced cases4501.00 (reference)1.06 (0.83-1.35)0.88 (0.64-1.23)0.66 (0.38-1.17)0.07
Former smoker
    All cases6,1191.00 (reference)0.95 (0.89-1.01)0.97 (0.89-1.06)0.91 (0.80-1.04)0.56
    Localized cases5,2311.00 (reference)0.95 (0.88-1.02)0.99 (0.90-1.08)0.91 (0.79-1.05)0.77
    Advanced cases8881.00 (reference)0.96 (0.80-1.14)0.89 (0.71-1.12)0.90 (0.64-1.26)0.41
Current smoker
    All cases8781.00 (reference)0.95 (0.80-1.13)0.90 (0.70-1.16)1.15 (0.81-1.63)0.68
    Localized cases7401.00 (reference)0.93 (0.77-1.12)0.90 (0.68-1.18)1.14 (0.78-1.67)0.62
    Advanced cases1381.00 (reference)1.12 (0.72-1.73)0.93 (0.48-1.79)1.18 (0.49-2.89)0.92
  • NOTE: All Pinteraction > 0.05.

  • * Includes vitamin E obtained from multivitamins and single supplements: 1 IU = 0.45 mg α-tocopherol equivalents.

  • Adjusted for age, race, education, personal history of diabetes, family history of prostate cancer, body mass index, and daily dietary intakes of red meat, α-linolenic acid, vitamin C (including supplements), and β-carotene (including supplements).