Table 3.

RR and 95% CI for prostate cancer according to quintiles of dietary tocopherols in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

Quintile of intake
Ptrend
12345
α-Tocopherol
    Median (range), mg/d4.8 (0.44-5.5)6.1 (5.5-6.5)7.0 (6.5-7.5)8.0 (7.5-8.8)10.0 (8.8-33.7)
    All cases, no.1,9562,0502,0582,0952,047
        Age-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.03 (0.97-1.10)1.03 (0.97-1.09)1.03 (0.97-1.10)0.99 (0.93-1.06)0.68
        Multivariate RR* (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.02 (0.95-1.09)1.00 (0.94-1.08)1.01 (0.94-1.08)0.97 (0.90-1.05)0.29
    Localized cases, no.1,6821,7511,7371,8141,751
        Age-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.02 (0.96-1.10)1.01 (0.94-1.08)1.04 (0.97-1.11)0.98 (0.92-1.05)0.62
        Multivariate RR* (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.01 (0.94-1.09)0.99 (0.92-1.07)1.03 (0.95-1.11)0.98 (0.90-1.06)0.53
    Advanced cases, no.274299321281296
        Age-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.08 (0.92-1.27)1.16 (0.98-1.36)1.00 (0.85-1.19)1.05 (0.89-1.24)0.90
        Multivariate RR* (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.03 (0.86-1.22)1.06 (0.88-1.27)0.89 (0.73-1.08)0.93 (0.76-1.13)0.21
β-Tocopherol
    Median (range), mg/d0.18 (0.007-0.22)0.25 (0.22-0.28)0.30 (0.28-0.33)0.36 (0.33-0.40)0.45 (0.40-1.36)
    All cases, no.1,9842,0122,0692,0622,084
        Age-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.00 (0.94-1.07)1.03 (0.97-1.09)1.02 (0.96-1.08)1.02 (0.96-1.08)0.52
        Multivariate RR* (95% CI)1.00 (reference)0.99 (0.93-1.05)1.01 (0.95-1.08)1.00 (0.93-1.06)1.00 (0.93-1.07)0.98
    Localized cases, no.1,7011,7181,7731,7711,776
        Age-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.00 (0.93-1.07)1.03 (0.96-1.10)1.02 (0.95-1.09)1.01 (0.95-1.08)0.68
        Multivariate RR* (95% CI)1.00 (reference)0.99 (0.92-1.06)1.01 (0.95-1.09)1.00 (0.93-1.08)1.00 (0.93-1.07)0.93
    Advanced cases, no.283294296291308
        Age-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.04 (0.88-1.22)1.04 (0.89-1.23)1.02 (0.86-1.20)1.07 (0.91-1.26)0.49
        Multivariate RR* (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.00 (0.84-1.18)0.99 (0.83-1.17)0.96 (0.80-1.14)1.00 (0.84-1.19)0.90
γ-Tocopherol
    Median (range), mg/d7.8 (0.53-9.7)11.1 (9.7-12.4)13.6 (12.4-14.9)16.4 (14.9-18.2)20.8 (18.2-57.5)
    All cases, no.2,1022,0361,9792,0772,037
        Age-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)0.97 (0.92-1.03)0.95 (0.89-1.01)1.00 (0.94-1.06)0.97 (0.91-1.03)0.49
        Multivariate RR* (95% CI)1.00 (reference)0.95 (0.89-1.01)0.92 (0.86-0.99)0.96 (0.89-1.03)0.93 (0.86-1.00)0.14
    Localized cases, no.1,7691,7571,6781,7901,762
        Age-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.00 (0.93-1.07)0.96 (0.90-1.03)1.02 (0.96-1.09)0.99 (0.93-1.06)0.96
        Multivariate RR* (95% CI)1.00 (reference)0.98 (0.92-1.06)0.94 (0.87-1.02)1.00 (0.93-1.08)0.97 (0.90-1.06)0.78
    Advanced cases, no.333279301287275
        Age-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)0.84 (0.72-0.98)0.91 (0.72-1.06)0.87 (0.74-1.01)0.83 (0.71-0.97)0.05
        Multivariate RR* (95% CI)1.00 (reference)0.77 (0.65-0.92)0.80 (0.67-0.96)0.74 (0.61-0.89)0.68 (0.56-0.84)0.001
δ-Tocopherol
    Median (range), mg/d1.1 (0.04-1.4)1.7 (1.4-1.9)2.2 (1.9-2.5)2.9 (2.5-3.3)4.0 (3.3-13.8)
    All cases, no.2,0252,0511,9452,0802,135
        Age-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.01 (0.95-1.08)0.95 (0.90-1.01)1.00 (0.94-1.07)0.99 (0.93-1.06)0.82
        Multivariate RR* (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.00 (0.94-1.07)0.95 (0.89-1.01)0.99 (0.93-1.06)0.99 (0.93-1.06)0.82
    Localized cases, no.1,7071,7401,6691,7851,859
        Age-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.02 (0.95-1.09)0.97 (0.91-1.04)1.02 (0.95-1.09)1.02 (0.96-1.09)0.52
        Multivariate RR* (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.01 (0.95-1.09)0.97 (0.90-1.04)1.02 (0.95-1.09)1.02 (0.95-1.10)0.45
    Advanced cases, no.318311276295276
        Age-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)0.98 (0.84-1.14)0.86 (0.73-1.01)0.91 (0.78-1.07)0.84 (0.72-0.99)0.03
        Multivariate RR* (95% CI)1.00 (reference)0.95 (0.81-1.12)0.84 (0.71-0.99)0.88 (0.74-1.04)0.80 (0.67-0.96)0.01
  • * Adjusted for age, race, smoking status, education, personal history of diabetes, family history of prostate cancer, body mass index, and dietary intakes of red meat, α-linolenic acid, vitamin C (including supplements), β-carotene (including supplements), and total energy.