Table 2.

RR and 95% CI for prostate cancer according to categories of supplemental vitamin E use in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

Supplemental vitamin E (IU/d)*
Ptrend
Supplemental vitamin E*0>0-99100-199200-399400-799≥800
Median, IU031.4133.9257.7429.3826.7
Person-years499,529351,85551,86373,221231,80865,443
All cases, no.4,0232,7433806221,950523
    Age-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)0.99 (0.94-1.04)0.91 (0.82-1.02)1.06 (0.97-1.15)1.00 (0.94-1.05)0.97 (0.89-1.06)0.84
    Multivariate RR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)0.97 (0.92-1.03)0.89 (0.80-0.99)1.03 (0.94-1.13)0.99 (0.92-1.06)0.97 (0.87-1.07)0.90
Localized cases, no.3,4592,3303195271,680450
    Age-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)0.98 (0.93-1.03)0.89 (0.80-1.00)1.04 (0.95-1.14)1.00 (0.94-1.06)0.97 (0.88-1.07)0.94
    Multivariate RR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)0.97 (0.91-1.03)0.88 (0.78-0.99)1.03 (0.93-1.14)1.00 (0.93-1.08)0.99 (0.88-1.10)0.61
Advanced cases, no.564413619527073
    Age-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.05 (0.92-1.19)1.04 (0.80-1.36)1.15 (0.92-1.43)1.00 (0.87-1.16)0.97 (0.76-1.24)0.73
    Multivariate RR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.00 (0.87-1.16)0.94 (0.71-1.25)1.02 (0.80-1.29)0.89 (0.74-1.07)0.86 (0.65-1.13)0.11
  • * Includes vitamin E obtained from multivitamins and single supplements: 1 IU = 0.45 mg α-tocopherol equivalents.

  • Adjusted for age, race, smoking status, education, personal history of diabetes, family history of prostate cancer, body mass index, and dietary intakes of red meat, α-linolenic acid, vitamin C (including supplements), and β-carotene (including supplements).