Table 4.

ORs of prostate cancer according to quintile of serum carotenoids

Aggressive prostate cancer*
Stage III and IV prostate cancer
Cases/controlsOR (95% CI)Cases/controlsOR (95% CI)
Lycopene
    Q153/1681.0017/1681.00
    Q243/1690.74 (0.45-1.20)12/1690.61 (0.27-1.37)
    Q353/1680.95 (0.59-1.52)23/1681.15 (0.56-2.39)
    Q468/1691.22 (0.78-1.91)22/1691.16 (0.57-2.38)
    Q553/1680.99 (0.62-1.57)16/1680.96 (0.45-2.05)
    P trend0.430.62
α-Carotene
    Q151/1681.0013/1681.00
    Q243/1680.94 (0.57-1.53)13/1681.33 (0.57-3.15)
    Q362/1691.21 (0.76-1.93)21/1691.96 (0.89-4.29)
    Q457/1681.19 (0.74-1.90)21/1681.93 (0.87-4.25)
    Q557/1681.11 (0.69-1.79)22/1682.07 (0.93-4.59)
    P trend0.580.09
β-Carotene
    Q138/1681.009/1681.00
    Q262/1691.53 (0.94-2.49)22/1692.40 (1.04-5.57)
    Q350/1681.37 (0.82-2.27)14/1681.53 (0.61-3.84)
    Q452/1691.39 (0.84-2.31)17/1691.78 (0.73-4.35)
    Q567/1681.67 (1.03-2.72)28/1683.16 (1.37-7.31)
    P trend0.130.02
β-Cryptoxanthin
    Q158/1681.0018/1681.00
    Q250/1690.89 (0.56-1.40)14/1690.77 (0.36-1.66)
    Q347/1680.83 (0.52-1.33)10/1680.68 (0.29-1.60)
    Q448/1690.82 (0.51-1.31)22/1691.20 (0.58-2.47)
    Q566/1681.08 (0.69-1.71)26/1681.57 (0.78-3.16)
    P trend0.530.04
Lutein
    Q161/1681.0013/1681.00
    Q247/1690.72 (0.45-1.15)15/1691.11 (0.47-2.60)
    Q358/1680.84 (0.54-1.31)22/1681.95 (0.88-4.32)
    Q450/1690.71 (0.44-1.14)19/1691.56 (0.70-3.48)
    Q553/1680.77 (0.49-1.22)21/1681.50 (0.68-3.33)
    P trend0.400.34
Zeaxanthin
    Q156/1681.0016/1681.00
    Q263/1691.04 (0.66-1.63)17/1691.06 (0.48-2.33)
    Q350/1680.67 (0.42-1.09)16/1680.88 (0.40-1.94)
    Q448/1690.70 (0.44-1.13)20/1691.21 (0.57-2.56)
    Q553/1680.87 (0.54-1.39)21/1681.29 (0.61-2.72)
    P trend0.350.40
  • * Aggressive defined as stage III or IV or Gleason score ≥7 (n = 269).

  • Adjusted for age, time since initial screening, year of blood draw, and study center.

  • Reference category.