Table 1.

Description of baseline characteristics overall and according to quintiles of serum lycopene and β-carotene

CharacteristicQuintile of serum lycopene
Quintile of serum β-carotene
Overall
135135
Controls (n)168168168168168168844
Mean age at study entry, years (SD)65.8 (0.4)64.0 (0.4)63.8 (0.4)64.1 (0.4)64.5 (0.4)65.4 (0.4)64.7 (0.2)
Average no. of screens /y*0.970.950.960.960.970.970.96
Non–Hispanic White (%)100100100100100100100
Family history of prostate cancer (%)6.74.74.14.14.53.95.2
History of diabetes (%)14.27.76.314.88.27.58.3
Serum cholesterol, mmol/L (SD)5.3 (0.1)6.1 (0.1)7.1 (0.1)5.4 (0.1)6.3 (0.2)6.6 (0.1)6.1 (0.1)
Mean current body mass index, kg/m2 (SD)27.3 (0.3)27.7 (0.3)26.5 (0.3)28.3 (0.3)27.5 (0.3)26.1 (0.3)27.3 (0.1)
Smoking history (%)
    Never32.723.332.421.627.140.730.0
    Current8.412.08.112.27.77.99.1
    Former51.057.148.855.255.140.651.5
    Pipe/Cigar6.26.29.29.88.89.29.4
Mean physical activity, h/wk (SD)2.8 (0.1)3.0 (0.1)3.1 (0.1)2.6 (0.1)2.8 (0.1)3.1 (0.1)2.9 (0.1)
Aspirin use, ≥1 times/wk (%)51.040.048.747.251.148.547.6
Mean intake (SD)
    Energy (kcal/d)2405 (72)2463 (72)2395 (73)2371 (71)2332 (74)2181 (73)2347 (32)
    Total fat (g/d)78.8 (1.3)81.8 (1.3)81.2 (1.4)81.9 (1.3)79.6 (1.4)76.8 (1.4)79.2 (1.4)
    Fruit, servings (2,000 kcal/d)3.5 (0.2)3.2 (0.2)3.5 (0.2)2.9 (0.2)3.3 (0.2)4.2 (0.2)3.5 (0.1)
    Vegetables, servings (2,000 kcal/d)5.2 (0.2)5.5 (0.2)5.7 (0.2)4.7 (0.1)5.4 (0.2)6.1 (0.2)5.5 (0.1)
    Red meat (g/d)97.0 (4.5)102.8 (4.5)103.6 (4.6)116.7 (4.4)97.1 (4.6)86.7 (4.5)97.7 (2.6)
    PhIP (ng/d)237.1 (42.9)309.9 (43.1)224.7 (43.1)294.4 (42.3)215.0 (43.8)208.2 (43.4)219.6 (19.4)
    Calcium (mg/d)1150 (35)1187 (35)1168 (35)1088 (34)1129 (35)1330 (35)1166 (21)
    Vitamin D (IU/d)451.6 (25.1)429.2 (25.2)388.0 (25.2)348.4 (24.2)428.6 (25.0)548.8 (24.8)419.8 (11.5)
    Supplement vitamin E use, ever, (%)52.847.049.338.647.470.048.6
  • NOTE: All values other than age were directly standardized for age. Intakes of total fat, fruit, vegetables, red meat, PhIP, calcium, and vitamin D were also standardized for energy intake.

  • * Average number of prostate cancer screening examinations (PSA or DRE) up to diagnosis of prostate cancer (cases) or selection as a control. Maximum period was limited to a period of active screening (years 0-5).

  • Includes both single supplement and multivitamin use.