Table 1.

Distribution of 767 RCCs and 1,534 controls according to selected covariates (Italy, 1992-2004)

Cases, n (%)Controls, n (%)
Sex
    Male494 (64.4)988 (64.4)
    Female273 (35.6)546 (35.6)
Age (y)
    <50123 (16.0)246 (16.0)
    50-59200 (26.1)407 (26.5)
    60-69281 (36.6)555 (36.2)
    ≥70163 (21.3)326 (21.3)
Education (y)*
    <7372 (48.5)849 (55.3)
    7-11212 (27.6)457 (29.8)
    ≥12183 (23.9)228 (14.9)
BMI (kg/m2)*
    <25281 (36.8)561 (36.7)
    25 to <30347 (45.4)750 (49.1)
    ≥30136 (17.8)218 (14.2)
Smoking habit*
    Never smoker314 (41.1)640 (41.7)
    Current smoker
        1-19 cigarettes/d109 (14.3)277 (18.1)
        ≥20 cigarettes/d126 (16.5)189 (12.3)
    Ex-smoker215 (28.1)428 (27.9)
Alcohol drinking
    Never drinker131 (17.1)231 (15.1)
    Ex-drinker63 (8.2)114 (7.4)
    Current drinker
        <21 drinks/wk231 (47.1)720 (46.9)
        ≥21 drinks/wk114 (27.6)469 (30.6)
Family history of kidney cancer
    No749 (97.7)1,526 (99.5)
    Yes18 (2.3)8 (0.5)
Total calorie intake (kcal)
    <1,786.8149 (19.4)306 (20.0)
    1,786.8-2,134.2155 (20.2)307 (20.0)
    2,134.3-2,460.0149 (19.4)308 (20.0)
    2,460.1-2,945.3160 (20.9)307 (20.0)
    ≥2,945.4154 (20.1)306 (20.0)
  • * The sum does not add up to the total because of some missing values.

  • Ex-smokers were subjects who had stopped smoking for at least 4 yrs.

  • In first-degree relatives.