Table 2.

HR and 95% CI values for pancreatic cancer according to fruit and vegetable consumption

Categories of consumption
1234Ptrend
All fruits and vegetables
    Servings/d<2.52.5-3.94.0-5.4≥5.5
    No. cases31333239
    Person-years of follow-up119,722148,792125,398159,618
    Age- and sex-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00.99 (0.60-1.62)1.12 (0.68-1.85)1.13 (0.69-1.84)0.54
    Multivariate HR (95% CI)*1.01.04 (0.63-1.73)1.16 (0.69-1.97)1.13 (0.66-1.94)0.62
All fruits
    Servings/d<1.01.0-1.41.5-2.4≥2.5
    No. cases46213830
    Person-years of follow-up187,119106,592145,746114,073
    Age- and sex-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00.75 (0.45-1.26)1.04 (0.67-1.61)1.03 (0.64-1.65)0.72
    Multivariate HR (95% CI)*1.00.83 (0.48-1.41)1.12 (0.70-1.80)1.10 (0.64-1.88)0.66
All vegetables
    Servings/d<1.51.5-2.42.5-3.4≥3.5
    No. cases35392140
    Person-years of follow-up127,189152,174121,403152,764
    Age- and sex-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.01.04 (0.66-1.65)0.75 (0.44-1.30)1.21 (0.76-1.94)0.52
    Multivariate HR (95% CI)*1.01.03 (0.64-1.67)0.72 (0.40-1.30)1.08 (0.63-1.85)0.87
Citrus fruits
    Servings/wk<1.01.0-2.93.0-6.9≥7.0
    No. cases52203528
    Person-years of follow-up218,44698,380127,714108,990
    Age- and sex-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00.86 (0.51-1.45)1.22 (0.80-1.90)1.09 (0.68-1.73)0.57
    Multivariate HR (95% CI)*1.00.88 (0.52-1.50)1.26 (0.81-2.00)1.12 (0.68-1.83)0.53
Green leafy vegetables
    Servings/wk<1.01.0-2.93.0-6.9≥7.0
    No. cases48284415
    Person-years of follow-up166,304140,242170,08276,902
    Age- and sex-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00.84 (0.52-1.34)1.10 (0.72-1.66)0.82 (0.45-1.47)0.80
    Multivariate HR (95% CI)*1.00.93 (0.57-1.53)1.21 (0.76-1.92)0.88 (0.47-1.67)0.99
Cruciferous vegetables
    Servings/wk<1.01.0-1.41.5-2.9≥3.0
    No. cases57232233
    Person-years of follow-up177,414104,238115,999155,879
    Age- and sex-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00.85 (0.52-1.39)0.68 (0.41-1.11)0.81 (0.52-1.25)0.30
    Multivariate HR (95% CI)*1.00.81 (0.49-1.33)0.63 (0.37-1.06)0.70 (0.43-1.13)0.14
  • * Multivariate HRs were adjusted for age (in months), sex, education (less than high school, high school graduate, or more than high school), body mass index (<23.0, 23.0-24.9, 25.0-29.9, or ≥30 kg/m2), physical activity (hours/wk; four categories), cigarette smoking status and pack-years of smoking (never, past <20 pack-years, past ≥20 pack-years, current <20 pack-years, current 20 to 39 pack-years, or current ≥40 pack-years), history of diabetes (yes or no), multivitamin supplement use (no use, occasional use, or regular use), and intakes of total energy (continuous) and alcohol (quartiles). Fruits and vegetables were included simultaneously in the multivariate model. Citrus fruits, green leafy vegetables, and cruciferous vegetables were included simultaneously in the multivariate model.