Table 2.

Frequencies of anomalies in buccal cells per 1,000 cells of smokers (n = 15) and nonsmokers (n = 10)

VariableGroupMean ± SEPrevalence ratioTwo-tailed P
Condensed chromatinSmokers9.52 ± 0.891.54 (1.08-2.18)0.019820
Nonsmokers6.19 ± 0.94
BinucleationSmokers7.02 ± 0.592.18 (1.56-3.03)0.000385
Nonsmokers3.23 ± 0.47
KaryorrhexisSmokers7.59 ± 0.682.47 (1.67-3.64)0.000428
Nonsmokers3.08 ± 0.55
KaryolysisSmokers9.90 ± 1.164.50 (2.64-7.67)0.000040
Nonsmokers2.20 ± 0.54
PyknosisSmokers2.23 ± 0.411.45 (0.83-2.53)0.244072
Nonsmokers1.54 ± 0.34
Broken eggsSmokers0.15 ± 0.060.74 (0.25-2.23)0.617618
Nonsmokers0.20 ± 0.08
Degenerative cellsSmokers36.42 ± 1.492.22 (1.81-2.73)0.000032
Nonsmokers16.39 ± 1.59
  • NOTE: Average number of inspected cells per participant: 2,127 (smokers) and 2,140 (nonsmokers).