Table 1.

Demographic and exposure characteristics of the four groups

Northern Manhattan (n = 468)WTC (n = 268)Krakow (n = 191)Tongliang (n = 136)
Maternal age (y)24.8 (4.9)*,30.3 (5.2)27.7 (3.8)25.1 (3.3)
Maternal education (%)
    High school76.2
    >High school23.832.5 67.540.3 59.775.2 24.8
Maternal ETS (% reporting smoker in the home)37.5§,17.027.258.1
Maternal alcohol consumption (% drank alcohol during pregnancy)24.7§8.162.341.6
PAHs in personal air (ng/m3)3.6 (3.8)§,NA52.0 (53.3)NA
  • NOTE: The dietary PAH intake group variable differed somewhat due to differences in foods consumed between populations. For each population the variable for dietary PAHs was dichotomized at the median.

  • * Mean (SD).

  • By Bonferroni multiple test, all group pairs are significantly different (P < 0.001) except for Northern Manhattan, and Tongliang.

  • By χ2 test, all pairs are significantly different (P < 0.01) except for Northern Manhattan, Tongliang and Northern Manhattan, Krakow.

  • § Measurements of personal air PAHs were not available.

  • By χ2 test, all pairs are significantly different (P < 0.01).

  • P < 0.01 for Northern Manhattan and Krakow.