Table 2.

Interplay between cruciferous vegetable intake (g/wk), GST genotypes, and the risk of colorectal adenomas

Crucifer intake (g/wk)*n (cases/controls)
Age + sex-adjusted OR (95% CI), P for interaction
Multiple adjusted OR (95% CI), P for interaction
≤129>129≤129>129≤129>129
All genotypes336/349410/34911.22 (0.98-1.52)11.15 (0.92-1.44)
Individual genotypes§
    GSTM1
        Null168/185213/19211.18 (0.87-1.59)11.12 (0.83-1.53)
        Present166/163194/1571.09 (0.79-1.49)1.39 (1.01-1.89)1.09 (0.80-1.50)1.30 (0.94-1.79)
0.720.81
    GSTT1
        Null62/6171/6611.13 (0.68-1.88)11.08 (0.64-1.80)
        Present272/287336/2830.97 (0.64-1.46)1.20 (0.80-1.80)0.99 (0.65-1.49)1.15 (0.76-1.73)
0.750.79
    GSTP1
        GG34/4356/4012.06 (1.09-3.89)11.94 (1.02-3.69)
        AG151/169183/1471.22 (0.72-2.07)1.61 (0.95-2.71)1.22 (0.72-2.06)1.50 (0.89-2.55)
        AA148/137166/1621.43 (0.84-2.43)1.39 (0.82-2.34)1.40 (0.82-2.39)1.30 (0.76-2.20)
0.100.11
    GSTA1
        TT53/6382/6311.67 (1.00-2.81)11.57 (0.93-2.65)
        CT166/169187/1601.26 (0.81-1.97)1.42 (0.91-2.21)1.24 (0.79-1.95)1.32 (0.84-2.06)
        CC113/117136/1261.19 (0.75-1.91)1.39 (0.87-2.21)1.17 (0.73-1.88)1.30 (0.82-2.08)
0.420.43
Genotype combinations
    GSTM1/T1
        Both null30/3332/3611.15 (0.56-2.35)11.11 (0.54-2.29)
        M1 or T1 null170/180220/1861.18 (0.67-2.07)1.37 (0.79-2.39)1.21 (0.69-2.12)1.33 (0.76-2.32)
        Both present134/135155/1271.16 (0.66-2.06)1.53 (0.86-2.71)1.20 (0.67-2.11)1.46 (0.82-2.59)
0.860.91
    GSTP1/A1
        P1 GG and/or A1 TT81/100129/9411.87 (1.23-2.84)11.76 (1.16-2.69)
        Remaining genotypes196/211216/1961.23 (0.85-1.77)1.37 (0.95-1.99)1.22 (0.84-1.77)1.28 (0.88-1.87)
        P1 AA and A1 CC54/3860/591.71 (1.00-2.92)1.33 (0.81-2.16)1.69 (0.99-2.88)1.24 (0.76-2.03)
0.0330.034
    GSTA1/M1
        A1 CT/TT and M1 null118/127143/12511.18 (0.82-1.70)11.12 (0.78-1.62)
        A1 CC and M1 null49/5866/670.93 (0.58-1.50)1.05 (0.67-1.64)0.94 (0.58-1.51)1.03 (0.66-1.60)
        A1 CT/TT and M1 present100/104124/981.03 (0.70-1.52)1.38 (0.94-2.02)1.04 (0.70-1.54)1.30 (0.88-1.91)
        A1CC and M1 present64/5969/591.11 (0.70-1.74)1.33 (0.85-2.09)1.10 (0.70-1.74)1.25 (0.79-1.97)
0.960.98
    GSTP1/T1
        P1 AG/GG and T1 null35/3545/3411.36 (0.69-2.68)11.26 (0.64-2.49)
        P1 AA and T1 null27/2626/321.03 (0.49-2.18)0.91 (0.44-1.89)0.99 (0.46-2.09)0.87 (0.41-1.81)
        P1 AG/GG and T1 present149/176194/1530.88 (0.51-1.52)1.30 (0.76-2.22)0.89 (0.51-1.53)1.23 (0.71-2.11)
        P1 AA and T1 present120/111137/1301.10 (0.63-1.93)1.08 (0.62-1.88)1.09 (0.62-1.92)1.01 (0.58-1.76)
0.340.37
  • * Mean cruciferous vegetable intake was 73.1 ± 36.3 and 70.3 ± 36.6 g/wk for cases and controls, respectively, in the lower-than-median intake group; and 242.5 ± 108.4 and 230.3 ± 109.2 g/wk, respectively, in the higher-than-median intake group.

  • Calculated as the LR test comparing the models with and without crucifer-by-genotype interaction terms.

  • Adjusted for age (in four categories: <45, <55, <65, <75 y), sex, energy intake (kJ/d) and folate intake (g/d).

  • § Numbers do not always add up to numbers under “All genotypes” due to missing genotype data (M1,T1: 6; P1: 8; A1: 9).

  • Least active/expressed variant(s).

  • When cruciferous vegetable intake is considered as a continuous variable, crucifer × genotype interaction is significant (P = 0.030).