Table 1.

Population characteristics

CharacteristicsCases
Controls
n = 746n = 698
General
    Sex% female, g/wk etc.46.561.8
    Age (mean ± SD)years59.0 ± 10.151.5 ± 13.6
    Smoking status% ever66.855.3
    Body mass index (mean ± SD)26.1 ± 3.925.5 ± 4.1
    Physical activity% low38.233.2
    Regular nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use (≥12/y)% yes26.729.7
    Education% low*35.933.0
Medical (% yes)
    Family history of colorectal cancer23.220.0
    Abdominal complaints34.059.0
    Defecation problems25.743.4
    Blood loss per anum30.618.9
    Surveillance/follow-up48.06.1
Dietary intake, median (10-90th percentile)
    EnergykJ/d8,394 (5,889-11,800)8,113 (5,452-11,808)
    Cruciferous vegetablesg/wk137 (41-322)129 (32-289)
freq/wk0.9 (0.3-1.9)0.8 (0.2-1.7)
    Total vegetablesg/d114 (69-180)109 (68-169)
freq/wk7.0 (4.6-11.5)7.0 (4.7-11.0)
    Total fruitg/d127 (18-367)125 (27-350)
freq/wk7.0 (1.0-21.0)7.0 (1.5-21.0)
    Folateμg/d194 (139-272)185 (131-260)
    Dietary fiberg/d23 (15-32)23 (15-32)
    Total meatg/d107 (40-177)102 (35-172)
freq/wk14.5 (5.9-31.0)14.0 (5.4-29.9)
    Fresh red meatg/d60 (16-100)53 (13-96)
freq/wk4.3 (1.7-6.0)4.2 (1.6-6.1)
    Processed meatg/d30 (6-75)29 (5-73)
freq/wk9.2 (1.03-25.4)8.4 (1.09-24.1)
    Alcoholg/d9 (0-42)4 (0-31)
    Coffeecups/d4 (2-7)4 (0-8)
Genotypes (%)
    GSTM1present/null48.6/51.445.9/54.1
    GSTT1present/null82.0/18.081.8/18.2
    GSTP1AA/AG/GG42.5/45.3/12.242.8/45.3/11.9
    GSTA1CC/CT/TT33.8/47.9/18.334.8/47.1/18.1
  • * Primary school or lower vocational training only.

  • Definition of total vegetables includes nonstarch legumes (string beans and peas) and excludes potatoes and vegetable juice.