Table 1.

Characteristics of the study population

Cases (n = 371), n (%)Controls (n = 420), n (%)
Age (y)
    50-5494 (25.3)130 (31.0)
    55-59103 (27.8)103 (24.5)
    60-6497 (26.1)101 (24.0)
    65-6977 (20.8)86 (20.5)
Education
    Less than high school35 (9.4)29 (6.9)
    High school grad92 (24.8)84 (20.0)
    Some college/tech school127 (34.2)133 (31.7)
    More than or graduate school117 (31.5)174 (41.4)
No. births
    065 (17.5)43 (10.2)
    146 (12.4)35 (8.3)
    ≥2260 (70.1)342 (81.4)
Body mass index (kg/m2)
    <18.59 (2.4)7 (1.7)
    18.5-24.9126 (34.3)232 (55.4)
    25.0-29.999 (27.0)109 (26.0)
    30.0-34.953 (14.4)45 (10.7)
    ≥3580 (21.8)26 (6.2)
    Missing4 (1.1)1 (0.2)
History of diabetes*
    No327 (88.0)398 (95.0)
    Yes44 (12.0)21 (5.0)
    Missing0 (0.0)1 (0.2)
History of hypertension*
    No240 (64.7)309 (73.7)
    Yes131 (35.3)110 (26.2)
    Missing0 (0.0)1 (0.2)
Use of oral contraceptives
    Never171 (46.3)170 (40.5)
    Ever198 (53.6)236 (56.2)
    Missing2 (0.5)14 (3.3)
Use of postmenopausal estrogens (mo)
    0-6165 (73.0)190 (91.3)
    ≥661 (27.0)18 (8.7)
    Missing145 (39.1)212 (50.5)
Cigarette smoking
    Never201 (60.7)179 (51.6)
    Former130 (39.3)168 (48.4)
    Current40 (10.8)73 (17.4)
  • * History of diabetes or hypertension as reported by participant, regardless of medication use.

  • Postmenopausal estrogen use represents use for at least 6 months of unopposed estrogens or estrogens opposed by progestogens for <10 d/mo; women with at least 6 month of use of other forms of postmenopausal hormone therapy are excluded from this analysis.

  • Current cigarette smoking defined as that within the 1 year before reference date.