Table 5

ORs for the combinations of alcohol flushing responses and amount of alcohol drinking, adjusted for other main esophageal cancer risk factors

Percentage values of controls are adjusted for age by a direct method using the cases as the standard population.

Alcohol drinkingaAlcohol flushingbCasesControlsORc95% CIdORe95% CI
N (%)N (%)
Never/rareAny5 (2.2)137 (26.0)1Referent
LightNever-flushing3 (1.3)85 (14.0)1.270.27–5.88}5.271.43–19.48
Current/former flushing21 (9.0)109 (18.1)6.692.21–20.20
ModerateNever-flushing32 (13.7)128 (19.9)10.123.45–29.69}4.222.25–7.89
Current/former flushing54 (23.2)38 (6.3)42.6614.17–128.42
HeavyNever-flushing36 (15.5)73 (10.1)15.615.19–46.91}4.672.42–9.00
Current/former flushing69 (29.6)28 (3.8)72.8623.75–223.57
Ex-drinkerNever-flushing5 (2.2)6 (0.8)27.315.24–142.46}1.360.23–8.06
Current/former flushing8 (3.4)6 (0.9)37.007.66–178.76
Total233 (100)610 (100)
  • a Never/rare, <1 unit/week; light, 1–8.9 units/week; moderate, 9–17.9 units/week; heavy, ≥18 units/week; where 1 unit = 22 g of ethanol.

  • b See text for definitions (“Questionnaires”).

  • c Adjusted for age, frequency of drinking strong alcohol beverages, pack-years and intake frequency of green-yellow vegetables and fruits by a multiple logistic regression model.

  • d CI, confidence interval.

  • e Adjusted OR of current/former flushing vs. never flushing in each drinking category.