Table 1

Basic characteristics in esophageal cancer cases and control subjects

Cases (n = 233)Controls (n = 610)P
Age (yrs)
 40–496.0%6.7%
 50–5934.8%46.7%
 60–6942.1%41.6%
 70–7917.2%4.9%<0.0001
 Mean ± SD61.7 ± 7.958.9 ± 7.1<0.0001
Alcohol drinkingab
 Never/rare2.2%26.0%
 Light10.3%32.1%
 Moderate36.9%26.2%
 Heavy45.1%14.0%
 Ex-drinker5.6%1.7%<0.0001
Strong alcoholic beveragesa
 Frequently17.8%2.5%
 Sometimes32.2%15.3%
 Never50.0%82.2%<0.0001
Smoking (pack-years)a
 09.0%28.2%
 <3016.7%29.5%
 ≥3074.3%42.4%<0.0001
Green-yellow vegetablesa
 Seldom0.9%0.6%
 1–2 days/month8.6%2.7%
 1–2 days/week35.6%22.1%
 3–4 days/week33.9%34.5%
 Almost every day21.0%40.1%<0.0001
Fruita
 Seldom7.4%3.6%
 1–2 days/month18.2%7.8%
 1–2 days/week36.4%25.8%
 3–4 days/week20.8%22.9%
 Almost every day17.3%39.9%<0.0001
Alcohol flushinga,c
 Current flushing44.6%41.2%
 Former flushing22.3%10.2%
 Never flushing33.1%48.6%<0.0001
ALDH2 genotypea
2*1/2*126.6%50.2%
2*1/2*272.5%43.0%
2*2/2*20.9%6.8%<0.0001
P for HWd<0.00010.84
ADH2 genotypea
2*1/2*121.9%4.8%
2*1/2*231.3%35.0%
2*2/2*246.8%60.3%<0.0001
P for HWd<0.00011.00
  • a Percentage and Ps adjusted for age by direct method (using case group as the standard population) and by Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test, respectively; Ps except alcohol drinking are for trend.

  • b Never/rare, <1 unit/week; light, 1–8.9 units/week; moderate, 9–17.9 units/week; heavy, ≥18 units/week (1 unit = 22 g of ethanol).

  • c See text for definitions (“Questionnaires”).

  • d Exact P for deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.