Table 2

Relative risk of leukemia among Iowa women according to level of intake of various food groups, adjusted for age, energy intake, blood transfusion status, education, BMI, and smoking status IWHS,a 1986 to 1999

Dietary factorTertile of intakeP for trendb
Protein (g/day)
 No. of cases424452
 95% CI0.64–1.660.61–2.100.70
% Carbohydrates (total calories)
 No. of cases524937
 95% CI0.61–1.360.46–1.110.14
% Total fat (total calories)
 No. of cases434649
 95% CI0.65–1.540.75–1.740.53
All meats (servings/wk)
 No. of cases455043
 95% CI0.71–1.680.50–1.41
Red meat (servings/wk)
 No. of cases374853
 95% CI0.85–2.090.71–1.86
Processed meat (servings/wk)
 No. of cases543252
 95% CI0.40–0.990.52–1.21
Fish and seafood (servings/wk)
 No. of cases415146
 95% CI0.58–1.350.64–1.55
Chicken with skin (servings/wk)
 No. of cases492663
 95% CI0.50–1.350.83–1.81
Chicken without skin (servings/wk)
 No. of cases532560
 95% CI0.47–1.250.58–1.25
Skim milk (servings/wk)
 No. of cases465339
 95% CI0.61–1.360.64–1.58
Whole milk (servings/wk)c
 No. of cases10929
 95% CI0.62–1.43
All dairy products (servings/wk)
 No. of cases443658
95% CI0.48–1.170.65–1.58
 All fruits (servings/wk)
 No. of cases504543
 95% CI0.62–1.430.49–1.20
 All vegetables (servings/wk)
 No. of cases563448
 95% CI0.36–0.880.44–1.07
 Cruciferous vegetables (servings/wk)
 No. of cases415146
 95% CI0.74–1.710.64–1.54
 Carotene-rich vegetables (servings/wk)
 No. of cases375348
 95% CI0.68–1.620.65–1.62
 Whole grains (servings/wk)
 No. of cases514146
 95% CI0.58–1.350.56–1.32
  • a Subjects with missing values for any of the covariates were not included in the final regression models.

  • b Tests for trend were performed by treating the categorical variable as a continuous variable in the model.

  • c No consumption was >0.5 servings per week.