Table 2

Relative risk of leukemia among Iowa women according to level of intake of various food groups, adjusted for age, energy intake, blood transfusion status, education, BMI, and smoking status IWHS,a 1986 to 1999

Dietary factorTertile of intakeP for trendb
123
Protein (g/day)
 Range<66.266.2–89.0>89.0
 No. of cases424452
 RR1.001.031.13
 95% CI0.64–1.660.61–2.100.70
% Carbohydrates (total calories)
 Range<45.745.7–51.9>51.9
 No. of cases524937
 RR1.000.910.72
 95% CI0.61–1.360.46–1.110.14
% Total fat (total calories)
 Range<31.631.6–36.4>36.4
 No. of cases434649
 RR1.001.001.14
 95% CI0.65–1.540.75–1.740.53
All meats (servings/wk)
 Range<10.310.3–15.0>15.0
 No. of cases455043
 RR1.001.090.840.52
 95% CI0.71–1.680.50–1.41
Red meat (servings/wk)
 Range<4.04.0–6.5>6.5
 No. of cases374853
 RR1.001.331.140.62
 95% CI0.85–2.090.71–1.86
Processed meat (servings/wk)
 Range<1.01.0–1.5>1.5
 No. of cases543252
 RR1.000.630.800.28
 95% CI0.40–0.990.52–1.21
Fish and seafood (servings/wk)
 Range<1.01.0–1.5>1.5
 No. of cases415146
 RR1.000.881.000.98
 95% CI0.58–1.350.64–1.55
Chicken with skin (servings/wk)
 Range<0.50.5>0.5
 No. of cases492663
 RR1.000.821.230.28
 95% CI0.50–1.350.83–1.81
Chicken without skin (servings/wk)
 Range<0.50.5>0.5
 No. of cases532560
 RR1.000.770.860.45
 95% CI0.47–1.250.58–1.25
Skim milk (servings/wk)
 Range<3.03.0–7.0>7.0
 No. of cases465339
 RR1.000.921.010.97
 95% CI0.61–1.360.64–1.58
Whole milk (servings/wk)c
 Range<0.50.5
 No. of cases10929
 RR1.000.940.77
 95% CI0.62–1.43
All dairy products (servings/wk)
 Range<10.510.5–20.0>20.0
 No. of cases443658
 RR1.000.751.010.91
95% CI0.48–1.170.65–1.58
 All fruits (servings/wk)
Range<13.113.1–20.9>20.9
 No. of cases504543
 RR1.000.940.770.25
 95% CI0.62–1.430.49–1.20
 All vegetables (servings/wk)
Range<18.118.1–28.0>28.0
 No. of cases563448
 RR1.000.560.690.08
 95% CI0.36–0.880.44–1.07
 Cruciferous vegetables (servings/wk)
Range<2.02.0–3.5>3.5
 No. of cases415146
 RR1.001.120.990.96
 95% CI0.74–1.710.64–1.54
 Carotene-rich vegetables (servings/wk)
Range<1.51.5–3.0>3.0
 No. of cases375348
 RR1.001.051.020.93
 95% CI0.68–1.620.65–1.62
 Whole grains (servings/wk)
Range<6.96.9–12.5>12.5
 No. of cases514146
 RR1.000.880.860.49
 95% CI0.58–1.350.56–1.32
  • a Subjects with missing values for any of the covariates were not included in the final regression models.

  • b Tests for trend were performed by treating the categorical variable as a continuous variable in the model.

  • c No consumption was >0.5 servings per week.