Table 1

Selected characteristics of women participating in the multiethnic Bay Area Thyroid Cancer Study

CharacteristicCasesControls
Age (mean ± SD)42.3 ± 12.743.2 ± 13.4
Race/ethnicity (%)
 Asian36%35%
 White49%52%
 Other15%13%
Medical radiation to the head/neck (%)a3%1%
History of goiter or thyroid nodules (%)b21%6%
Family history of proliferative thyroid disease (%)c14%5%
Recent pregnancy (%)d35%28%
Menopausal status (%)
 Premenopausal72%68%
 Postmenopausal20%23%
 Cannot determinee8%10%
Daily caloric intake (kcal/day)2,188 ± 8422,101 ± 821
% of calories from fat32%31%
Consumption of cruciferous vegetables (g/day)55 ± 6358 ± 63
Total carotenoid intake (mcg/day)f13,127 ± 9,57214,545 ± 11,414
Vitamin C intake (mg/day)f347 ± 528388 ± 556
Vitamin E intake (α-TE/day)f52 ± 11977 ± 157
Fiber intake (g/day)22 ± 1023 ± 11
  • a More than 5 years prior to diagnosis/selection.

  • b Diagnosed more than 2 years prior to diagnosis/selection.

  • c Defined as goiter, thyroid nodules, or thyroid cancer.

  • d Defined as within the 2 years before diagnosis/selection; analysis limited to women under age 45.

  • e Women who began taking hormone replacement therapy before the cessation of menses and who had not yet attained age 55.

  • f Including intake from food sources and supplements.