Table 2

Summary of paired data of the quantified biomarkers in NAC and placebo groups at pre- and postintervention times

NAC group Mean ± SEPlacebo group Mean ± SE
nT0T1nT0T1
Cotinine (plasma) (μg/l)15445 ± 57467 ± 5616510 ± 47469 ± 39
Cotinine (BAL fluid; μg/l)111788 ± 3153678 ± 1793142527 ± 4801794 ± 291a
Urine mutagenicity (×1000 revertants)6154 ± 36133 ± 1811153 ± 24121 ± 19
4-ABP-Hb adducts (ng/g Hb)160.21 ± 0.020.20 ± 0.02160.23 ± 0.020.26 ± 0.02
Lipophilic-DNA adducts (PBL;/108 nucleotides)151.46 ± 0.12.50 ± 0.5161.46 ± 0.22.52 ± 0.3b
Lipophilic-DNA adducts (BAL cells; /108 nucleotides)106.01 ± 0.94.25 ± 0.8c106.03 ± 0.75.9 ± 0.7
8-OH-dG adducts (BAL cells; 105 nucleotides)34.9 ± 0.71.8 ± 0.3d,e34.8 ± 0.53.2 ± 0.8
PAH-DNA adducts (MFCs; Nucleic stain density)120.04 ± 0.010.06 ± 0.01140.05 ± 0.010.05 ± 0.01
PAH-DNA adducts (BMCs; Nucleic stain density)90.06 ± 0.010.05 ± 0.01130.06 ± 0.010.07 ± 0.01
Micronuclei (MFCs; %)151.3 ± 0.30.9 ± 0.3f151.2 ± 0.31.0 ± 0.2
Micronuclei (SPCs; %)151.3 ± 0.20.9 ± 0.2151.4 ± 0.21.5 ± 0.2
TEAC (plasma; μm/l)16393 ± 14473 ± 1916387 ± 11450 ± 12g
TEAC (BAL fluid; μm/l)112043 ± 2541806 ± 271141703 ± 2031777 ± 272
  • a Statistically significant as compared with the placebo group at T0, P = 0.05.

  • b Statistically significant as compared with the placebo group at T0, P = 0.01.

  • c Statistically significant as compared with the NAC group at T0, P = 0.05.

  • d Statistically significant as compared with the placebo group at T1, P = 0.03.

  • e Statistically significant as compared with the NAC group at T0, P = 0.003.

  • f Statistically significant as compared with the NAC group at T0, P = 0.05.

  • g Statistically significant as compared with the placebo group at T0, P = 0.008.