Table 2

Soyfood intake at baseline and risk of bladder cancer, Singapore Chinese Health Study

No. of casesPerson-yearsRRa (95% CI)RRb (95% CI)
Total61329,848
Total soy (g/1000 Kcal)c
 ≤36.851079,5971.001.00
 36.86–60.351583,4391.64 (0.74–3.66)1.65 (0.74–3.68)
 60.36–92.481883,7102.12 (0.98–4.61)2.13 (0.98–4.62)
 92.49+1883,1022.32 (1.07–5.05)2.34 (1.07–5.09)
 Per 50 g/1000 Kcal1.25 (1.03–1.53)1.26 (1.03–1.54)
Soy protein (% Kcal)
 ≤0.79879,7951.001.00
 0.80–1.281883,6402.45 (1.06–5.64)2.48 (1.08–5.71)
 1.29–1.941883,7102.62 (1.14–6.04)2.63 (1.14–6.07)
 1.95+1782,7032.73 (1.17–6.33)2.74 (1.18–6.38)
 Per 1% Kcal1.25 (1.01–1.53)1.25 (1.01–1.54)
Soy isoflavones (mg/1000 Kcal)
 ≤5.771079,5211.001.00
 5.78–9.831483,0701.51 (0.67–3.40)1.52 (0.67–3.42)
 9.84–15.422183,9442.48 (1.17–5.28)2.47 (1.16–5.26)
 15.43+1683,3132.07 (0.94–4.57)2.08 (0.94–4.60)
 Per 10 mg/1000 Kcal1.27 (1.03–1.56)1.27 (1.03–1.57)
  • a RRs were adjusted for age at baseline interview (yr), year of recruitment, sex, and dialect group (Cantonese or Hokkien).

  • b Additional adjust for cigarette smoking status (never, ex, and current) and level of education (no formal education, primary school, and secondary school or higher).

  • c Expressed in units of tofu-equivalents (see “Subjects and Methods” section for details).