Table 1

Distribution of selected demographic and lifestyle variables at baseline stratified by levels of total soy intake, Singapore Chinese Health Studya

Quartiles of total soy intakeb
<36.8536.86–60.3560.36–92.4892.49+
No. of subjects15,59415,60515,61615,578
Men (%)51.446.342.537.2
Body mass index (kg/m2)23.023.123.223.3
Level of education
 Secondary and higher (%)24.727.729.830.8
Cigarette smoking
 Ever (%)38.231.028.024.9
 Cigarettes/day among ever smokers17.817.317.016.7
 Years of smoking among ever smokers33.633.332.732.3
Mean food/nutrient density
 Soy foods/nutrients
  Total soy (g/1000 Kcal)b22.248.474.9137.8
  Soy protein (% Kcal)0.51.01.62.8
  Soy isoflavones (mg/1000 Kcal)3.57.912.423.5
 Other foods
  All red meats (g/1000 Kcal)18.819.519.517.8
  All fish/shellfish (g/1000 Kcal)33.635.637.338.1
  Nonsoy legume (g/1000 Kcal)1.41.82.12.4
  All vegetables (g/1000 Kcal)61.968.574.985.3
  All fruit/fruit juice (g/1000 Kcal)111.5126.0135.9147.9
  All grain products (g/1000 Kcal)390.9362.6338.4305.4
 Other nutrients
  Total energy (Kcal)1,490.41,545.71,585.31,596.8
  Fat (% Kcal)22.124.325.928.0
  Protein (% Kcal)14.214.915.516.2
  Carbohydrate (% Kcal)62.560.158.255.7
  Vitamin A (IU/1000 Kcal)2,828.83,113.73,375.73,800.6
  Vitamin C (mg/1000 Kcal)48.053.558.163.6
  Total carotenoids (mcg/1000 Kcal)3,132.83,467.43,804.94,317.5
  Vitamin E (mg/1000 Kcal)3.13.64.04.6
  • a All associations were statistically significant (two-sided P < 0.05).

  • b Expressed in units of tofu-equivalents (see “Subjects and Methods” section for details).